By Reynold A. Nicholson
The Arabs in the course of 1000 years or extra produced one of many richest and such a lot vast literatures of the realm, embracing wonderful poetry (of the fierce barren region existence both with the sophistication of royal courts), belles lettres (learned essays, satires, de arte amoris), spiritual, mystical and philosophical writings, and enormous compendia of heritage, biography and geography. For sixty years, the easiest account in English of this mammoth output has been, through common consent, R. A. Nicholson's Literary background of the Arabs; its supremacy will lengthy stay unchallenged. That it's a booklet filled with erudition and excessive severe judgement is going with no announcing; its writer is usually a poet-translator of infrequent excellence.
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P. I03J). the older inscriptions 'Athtar and Almaqa are always mentioned together ; and Almaqa, which according to Hamdani is the name of Venus (al-Zuhara), was identified by Arabian archaeologists with Bilqis. For qarn in the sense of 'ray' or 'beam' see Goldziher, Ablland. zur Arab. Philologie, Part I, p. II4. , p. ) of that peculiar conversion by which many heathen deities were enabled to maintain themselves under various disguises within the pale of Islam. kssage 'liOn Jemen, p. 15 (No.
It is described as a huge edifice of twenty stories, each story ten cubits high. The Gbumdan. four fac;ades were built with stone of different colourst white, black, green, and red. On the top story was a chamber which had windows of marble framed with ebony Its roof was a slab of pellucid marble, so and planewood. that when the lord of Ghumdan lay on his couch he saw the birds fly overhead, and could distinguish a raven from a kite. At each corner stood a brazen liont and when the wind blew • The second half of this verse is corrupt.
E. -). D. and made an end of the Caliphate. Sweeping onward, they were checked by the Egyptian The Poat-~lon- Mamelukes and retired into Persia where some gollan penod. ' ' fifty years afterwards, they embraced Islam. ). The unity of Islam, in a political sense, was now destroyed. Out of the chaos three Mubammadan empires gradually took shape. In 1358 the Ottoman Turks crossed the Hellespont, in 1453 they entered Constantinople, and in 1517 Syria, Egypt, and Arabia were added to their dominions.