By Alger F. Johns
This typical grammar publication of biblical Aramaic, utilized by scholars at many seminaries and universities, is the one one to incorporate graded routines on the shut of every of its twenty classes.
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Additional info for A Short Grammar of Biblical Aramaic
Wanann anani In the perfect the variant form feminine singular. ) nanann; (withsuffix) nianann. The Hithpeel Imperative is: anann (masc. ) -anann (fem. ) lanann (masc. ) The Hithpeel Participles a r e : anara nanana (masc. ) panana (masc. ) (fem. ) ]anana (fem. ) Once again, only a few of the above forms are actually found in the regular (strong) verbs of BA. One example of each of the forms which do occur is listed below: Perfect — second person masculine plural pniantn [a Kethib-Qere variation—possibly pniam — or a Hithpaal] Imperfect — third person feminine singular Infinitive — nVopnn Participle — masculine plural 4.
Of BH grammarians. ) na"]i? ) nanj? ) lanj? ) nanj? ) iwanj? ) Niani? we approached The second person masculine singular also has the variant forms nnana and n a n a . The same variant endings may be found in the derived conjugations. 5. Uses of the Perfect: In BA, as in BH, t h e perfect can be used in a variety of relationships to the element of time, and hence it may be translated by several different English tenses. Examples of the most common uses of the perfect are listed below: (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Historical perfect: Vaa-Tiba nsnaiai r a ian an^ " H e gave them into the power of Nebuchadnezzar, the king of Babylon" (Ezra 5:12).
N-rT'a "this house of God be built" [lit. " t o build this house of G o d " ] (Ezra 5:13). 9. The Copula: I n BA there are several ways in which the copula may be expressed. I t is most frequently expressed either by juxtaposition of the subject 27 and predicate, or by the use of some form of the verb nin. Also rather common is the use of a third person independent personal pronoun as a copula (see III, sec. 2 B). In addition t o these methods of expressing the copula, it may be expressed by using •'n'R (see XVI, sec.