By John Palfrey, Rafal Rohozinski, Jonathan Zittrain, Ronald J. Deibert
Many nations all over the world block or filter out net content material, denying entry to information--often approximately politics, but additionally when it comes to sexuality, tradition, or religion--that they deem too delicate for traditional electorate. entry Denied records and analyzes web filtering practices in over 3 dozen nations, supplying the 1st conscientiously performed examine of this accelerating trend.
Internet filtering occurs in a minimum of 40 states world wide together with many nations in Asia and the center East and North Africa. comparable web content material regulate mechanisms also are in position in Canada, the USA and a cluster of nations in Europe. Drawing on a just-completed survey of world net filtering undertaken by means of the OpenNet Initiative (a collaboration of the Berkman middle for web and Society at Harvard legislation institution, the Citizen Lab on the collage of Toronto, the Oxford web Institute at Oxford collage, and the college of Cambridge) and hoping on paintings via neighborhood specialists and an in depth community of researchers, entry Denied examines the political, felony, social, and cultural contexts of web filtering in those states from a number of views. Chapters talk about the mechanisms and politics of web filtering, the strengths and barriers of the know-how that powers it, the relevance of overseas legislation, moral issues for companies that provide states with the instruments for blocking off and filtering, and the consequences of web filtering for activist groups that more and more depend on net applied sciences for speaking their missions.
Reports on web content material legislation in 40 assorted international locations keep on with, with every one kingdom profile outlining the kinds of content material blocked through type and documenting key findings.
* bankruptcy 1: Measuring worldwide web Filtering
* bankruptcy 2: net Filtering: The Politics and Mechanisms of Control
* bankruptcy three: instruments and know-how of web Filtering
* bankruptcy four: Filtering and the overseas method: a question of Commitment
* bankruptcy five: Reluctant Gatekeepers: company Ethics on a Filtered Internet
* bankruptcy 6: strong for Liberty, undesirable for defense? worldwide Civil Society and the Securitization of the web
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Extra info for Access Denied: The Practice and Policy of Global Internet Filtering
Some states place pressure on cybercafe ISPs to monitor Internet usage by their customers. With the exception of a few places, no state seems to communicate much at all with the public about its process for blocking and unblocking content on the Internet. Most states, instead, have only a series of broad laws that cover content issues online. The effect of these regimes is to put citizens on notice that they should not publish or access content online that violates certain norms and to create a sense that someone might be paying attention to their online activity.
Generally, each ISP maintains its own DNS server for use by its customers. To block access to particular Web sites, the DNS servers are configured to return the wrong IP address. While this allows the blocking of specific domain names, it also can be easily circumvented by simple means such as accessing an IP address directly or by configuring your computer to use a different DNS server. In Vietnam, the ISP FPT configures DNS to not resolve certain domain names, as if the site does not exist. The ISP Cybernet in Pakistan also uses this technique.
D indicates that blocking is decentralized, typically implemented by ISPs. ) at the institutional level, for example, cybercafe Consistency measures the variation in filtering within a country across different ISPs where applicable. Concealed filtering reflects either efforts to conceal the fact that filtering is occurring or the failure to clearly indicate filtering when it occurs. Transparency and accountability corresponds to the overall level of openness in regard to the practice of filtering.