By Wim Pelupessy, Reurd Ruben
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Restrictions on legalized trade unions and two successive fraudulent general elections further reduced the credibility of the political system. At the same time, on the external side, the Sandinistas had ousted the very conservative Somoza regime in Nicaragua, which lead to an international fear of communist takeovers in the rest of Central America. The United States’ Kissinger plan and the Socialist and Christian Democrat Internationals advocated structural changes in the region. In El Salvador a US-backed coup of ‘young’ military ofﬁcers deposed the landlord-related government and gave way to a reformist state with a certain degree of autonomy from the landholding classes.
The relative importance of the total reformed area was more or less the same in both countries. 2 Achievements of land reform in El Salvador and Taiwan (ten years) Area (1000 hectares) Program ES Rent reduction Taiwan — Cooperatives Sale public landa 206 Land-to-the-tiller Beneﬁciaries (1000 families) ES 257 (29%) — (8%) 30 70 (14%) Taiwan — 296 (36%) 140 — (17%) (8%) 72 (5%) 139 (16%) 47 (13%) 195 (24%) b 17 79 (1%) (5%) 40 (4%) — 12 39 (3%) (11%) 78 (9%) — Total reformed 374 (25%) 249 (29%) 128 (35%) 413 (50%) Non-reformed (% landless) 1 094 (75%) 624 (71%) 242 (65%) (31%) 406 (50%) (8%) Total farmland 1 468 (100%) 873 (100%) 370 (100%) 819 (100%) Voluntary sale Peace settlement Sources: Pelupessy, (1997: 145); FMLN – Coordinación Nacional Sector Campesino (1995: 12); Hsieh (1989: 4–10); Ho (1966: 52); Thorbecke (1992: 22); Chen (1961: 5–91, 308).
The meso level consists basically of the markets, which ensure the exchange of goods, factors and services, and the endowments in social and physical infrastructure and public services, such as health care, education, transport and communication, which form the framework for the individual’s economic activities. 1, the macro level consists of economic policy measures affecting different macroeconomic variables like the exchange rate and interest rate, price relations between tradables and non-tradables, or government spending.