By H. C. Gerhardt (auth.), Dr. Steven L. Hopp, Dr. Michael J. Owren, Dr. Christopher S. Evans (eds.)
The final many years have introduced an important raise in examine on acoustic communi cation in animals. booklet of clinical papers on either empirical and theoretical points of this subject has drastically elevated, and a brand new magazine, Bioacoustics, is completely dedicated to such articles. Coupled with this proliferation of labor is a reputation that some of the present concerns are top approached with an interdisciplinary point of view, requiring technical and theoretical contributions from a few components of inquiry that experience ordinarily been separated. With the remarkable exception of a set edited by way of Lewis (1983), there were fewvolumes predominatelyfocused on technical concerns in comparative bioacoustics to keep on with up the earlyworks edited through Lanyon and Tavolga (1960) and Busnel (1963). It was once the great development of workmanship c:()ncerning this subject particularly that supplied the preliminary impetus to arrange this quantity, which makes an attempt to provide basic details from either theoretical and utilized points of present bioacoustics study. whereas a totally finished overview will be impractical, this quantity deals a simple therapy of a large choice of issues aimed toward supplying a conceptual framework in which researchers can tackle their very own questions. every one presentation is designed to be necessary to the broadest attainable spectrum of researchers, together with either these presently operating in any of the numerous and various disciplines of bioacoustics, and others which may be new to such studies.
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1t of 00, all frequencyeomponents are del~yed bY,exaedythe same amount. ffin = e,n(ffi + 21t). 3 Frequency-Domain Interpretation of Signals It ean also be shown that input signals ean be expressed in terms of their frequency eontent. If x(n) is the signal, then its deseription in terms of frequency is as shown in Eq. (9) whieh is ealled the Fourier transform of x(n). n=- Figure 3A shows the magnitude of the Fourier transform for a segment of the spring peeper eall. This plot displays more or less how energy of the aeoustic waveform is distributed in the frequency domain.
For example, it is perfectly valid to process a given signal sequence in reverse order, or to "look ahead" in the sampie list. This general property is extremely important in separating signals from noise, keeping signal values within acceptable ranges, tracking discrete frequency components, and the like. Perhaps the most popular DSP tools are those that operate in the frequency domain. While there are a number of mathematical and physical reasons for their usefulness, one of the most compelling is biological- the hearing mechanisms ofhigher vertebrates perform similar analyses, and therefore extraction ofbiologically significant information from these signals for sdentific purposes requires analogous digital techniques.
2). M-l y(n) = "Lb(k)x(n-k). k=O (2) Here, the filter is of order M - 1, meaning that M -1 values must be remembered. In general, the order of the filter describes its computational complexity. In this equation, yen) is the nth (or current) output sample, x(n - k) is the input sample that occurs k units of time (samples) before the current sample, x(n), b(k) is the value by which x(n-k) is multiplied and M - 1 is the order of the filter. In our 100-POint smoothing filter, M - 1 was 99 and b(k) was 1 /100 for all its values.