By J. Kennedy M.A. (auth.)
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The dynamic nationalism of Communist China could not fail to have some influence among Chinese overseas and especially those in SouthEast Asia. China's increasing prestige and status was a source of pride to many Chinese who were not necessarily communists or communist sympathisers. Governments in South-East Asia were closely concerned about China's intentions as they always had been at times in history when China was strong. The new Chinese Republic faced vast economic tasks with great energy and resolution.
Boundaries for the two new dominions ofIndia and Pakistan remained to be worked out, together with the question of accession of the India of the princes to one or other of the new States. In the event, the Princely States came to terms with the new situation and, apart from three notable exceptions, they made their accessions without much difficulty. Kashmir proved to be the most significant of the exceptions and was subsequently to prove a very real bone of contention between India and Pakistan.
Leading Muslims were conscious that their community had made less response to the Western challenge than the Hindus, especially, for instance, in education, including the use of English. One nineteenthcentury Muslim leader, Sayyid Ahmad Khan (1817-98), a judge from Delhi, was convinced that Indian Muslims must come to terms with the West, both politically and culturally, otherwise they would be outdistanced in the race for government favour. He was one, among others, to put forward the view that Western knowledge need not be incompatible with the tenets of Islam and he was largely responsible for the opening of the Anglo-Oriental College at Aligarh in 1875, an institution which had both British and Indian members of staff and a curriculum which included both Islamic and Western learning.