British Cities. An Analysis of Urban Change by Nigel Spence

By Nigel Spence

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Group 5 London Periphery Labour Markets Total 16 Relatively small in terms of population sizes (except Reading). All strongly linked to London in terms of commuting and migration. Principal destinations for London out-migrants. Aldershot, Aylesbury, Guildford, High Wycombe, Letchworth, Maidstone, St. Albans, Reading, Slough, Thurrock, Walton & Weybridge, Watford, Woking, Southend, Tunbridge Wells, Chelmsford. Group 6 The New Towns Total 7 MELAs whose core areas broadly coincide with designated New Towns or Expanded Areas.

D) Decentralisation of population and latterly of jobs is a process which is coming to characterise most British cities, regardless of their size, region or relative location. (See Figs. 7» 22 British Cities POPULATION 8 South East 6 West Midlands 9 South West 7 East Anglia 4 North West 5 East Midlands East Anglia — - 7 South West ^9 East Midlands — 5 West Midlands«-6 Wales -10 North 2 South East 8 Yorks. & H . — ^ 31 Scotland — - — " 1 Scotland 3 Yorks. & H. 2 North 10 Wales North West - -10 51/61 CORE 61/71 51/61 61/71 51/61 61/71 OUTER RING RING East Anglia - 8 South East South West ^ Wales - ^ _ _ _ ^ South East — _ East Midlands—-5| West Midlands-6 North -2 Yorks.

The grouping strategy adopted in both instances was hierarchical (Ward, 1963). Providing variables are standardised to avoid bias toward those variables with physically greater volumes, but not necessarily greater significance, the data may be inputed direct into a hierarchical algorithm. In the case of the socio-economic classification, bias had been considerably diminished, although not entirely eliminated, by the choice of a similar number of variables from different aspects of areal attributes, together with the elimination IT British Urban Systems in Context of one of any pair of variables correlating highly.

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