Calorimetry in Food Processing: Analysis and Design of Food by Gönül Kaletunç

By Gönül Kaletunç

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1996. Scanning Transitiometry. Chemical Society Reviews, 25:383. , and Teramoto Y. 1996. Kinetic Analysis of the Isothermal Crystallization of an N-Alkane and Polyethylene Observed by Simultaneous DSC/FT-IR/WAXD Measurement. Thermochim Acta, 282/283: 443–452. Yoshida H. 1999. Structure Relaxation of N-Alkanes Observed by the Simultaneous DSC/FTIR Method. J Therm Anal Calorim, 57(3):679–685. Chapter 2 Methods and Applications of Microcalorimetry in Food Pierre Le Parlouër and Luc Benoist Introduction The Heat Flux Calorimetric Principle DSC versus Heat Flux Microcalorimetry Comparison between DSC and Heat Flux Microcalorimetry The Calvet Principle Calibration Description of Different Heat Flux Calorimeters Used for Food Characterization High Sensitivity Heat Flux Calorimeter The Mixing and Reaction Heat Flux Microcalorimeter Methods of Microcalorimetry in Food Heat Capacity Determination Heating Mode Mixing and Reaction Calorimetry Pressure Calorimetry Calorimetry under Controlled Relative Humidity Conclusion References 15 17 19 19 22 23 26 26 29 30 30 35 40 43 45 45 46 Introduction Heat is involved at different steps in the preparation of foods, such as cooking and processing.

It can be applied to any experimental vessel volume. • It is a very accurate calibration. 3). An elementary power, wi, is dissipated through each thermocouple giving an elementary variation of temperature ΔTi between the internal and external weldings: wi = δ i ΔTi where Δi is the conductance of the thermocouple. 7. Joule effect calibration principle. 8) where εi is the thermoelectric constant of the thermocouple. 10 shows that the power dissipated in the vessel is directly correlated with the heat flux.

Generally, another technique such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy or x-ray diffraction (XRD) is used in parallel to acquire structural information. Obtaining complementary data can be further improved by performing simultaneous DSC-FTIR (Yoshida 1999) or DSC-XRD (Yoshida et al. 1996; Ollivon et al. 2006) measurements on the same sample. Chapter 8 describes in detail the development of a new instrument, called MICROCALIX, combining XRD at both wide and small angles as a function of temperature (XRDT) or time (XRDt), and high-sensitivity DSC, in the same apparatus with scanning or isothermal modes over the temperature range −30 to +230 °C.

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