Cell to Cell Signals in Mammalian Development by Frank Schulze, Michael Kessel, Peter Gruss (auth.), S. W. de

By Frank Schulze, Michael Kessel, Peter Gruss (auth.), S. W. de Laat, J. G. Bluemink, C. L. Mummery (eds.)

Developmental biology bargains with the regulatory ideas underlying the iteration of a brand new organism. The up to date wisdom of the molecular and mobile mechanisms that consultant mammalian improvement from a unmarried phone via a fancy and built-in technique of phone multiplication, differentiation and enterprise of cells into tissues and organs is gifted during this quantity. points of the molecular nature and developmental importance of cell-to-cell signs specialize in: - hoxgenes, their items and power function in mammalian morphogenesis; - progress elements, their receptors and sign transduction, and their function in guiding telephone multiplication, differentiation and transformation; and - mobile adhesion and extracellular matrix molecules, as short-range cell-to-cell signs in mammalian development.

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4 specifies how the brain and spinal cord fractions were obtained. The results are displayed in Fig. 4. Each filter was subsequently hybridized to a homeobox gene probe as indicated, to NF 68 as a neuronal marker and to beta actin as a control for the amount of stable mRNA present. While all five genes are mainly active in nervous tissue, we observe specific differences in expression from one gene to another. 3 transcripts are found in the three fractions of the spinal cord with weak expression in the brain and in the viscera and limb buds.

0"": Figure 1. Stage-specificity of En-l expression during mouse embryogenesis. g) isolated from PSA-1 teratocarcinoma stem cells maintained in the undifferentiated state (un) and at three stages of differentiation (diff 1,2,3), and from whole embryos at the days of gestation indicated, were analyzed by hybridization under conditions of high stringency to a single-stranded 140 bp En-l homeo box-containing probe (see Joyner, et al. 1985). 8 kb in length. 5 days of gestation were dissected into seven fetal and two extra-embryonic parts and total RNA was extracted from each sample.

The region that shares significant sequence homology with the Drosophila en and inv genes, as' well as with the mouse En-2 gene, and in which the homeo box is located, is indicated. To obtain an immunological reagent specific for the En-l gene, we sought to raise an antibody against a portion of the protein product that is outside of this conserved region. We therefore isolated the 531 bp Clal/Accl fragment of the En-l gene immediately upstream of the conserved region (see Figure 3). This portion of the gene was found, by sequence analysis and other criteria, to 47 contain a single long open reading frame that encodes part of the En-1 protein.

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