By E. George H. Joffé, Valérie Day-Viaud
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At the same time, tensions erupted over proposed political changes which seemed to threaten southern Chadian interests. Déby sought and obtained Libyan support and, operating through the Sudanese border at Darfur, amongst his own ethnic Zaghawa group, soon ousted Habré in December 1990. The Déby government is still in power, despite at least two coup attempts and hostile US and French pressure. At the same time, it is attempting to resist too close a Libyan embrace. Chad itself is bankrupt and prostrate after twenty-seven years of continuous warfare and is now struggling towards a more equitable, less tribally based government.
The conquest actually took fifteen years to complete between 1900 and 1915 and, after a hiatus during the First World War, a further forty years were spent organizing the administration of the new colony. In part the conquest corresponded to the grander design of linking together the two components of the new French colonial empire created during the nineteenth century: French West Africa and French North Africa. The extent of the French advance into Chad was governed by the 1898 Anglo-French Spheres of Influence Agreement which, according to the subsequent 1899 Declaration, divided Central Africa between the two countries along a line, '.
Page 7 25 Chad. Alex Newton. In his: Central Africa, a travel survival kit. Hawthorn, Australia; Berkeley, USA: Lonely Planet Publications, 1989, p. 122-137. maps. This travel guide provides general historical and geographical data as well as practical information on travelling in Chad. N'Djamena, Lake Chad, Abéché and the Tibesti are specifically described and details are given of their main attractions as well as travelling tips. 26 Sur les routes du Cameroun et de l'AEF. ) M. Rondet-Saint. Paris: Société d'Editions Géographiques, Maritimes et Coloniales, 1933.