By William H. Schmidt
Characterizing Pedagogical Flow provides conclusions from a multi-disciplinary, multi-national learn undertaking mixing quantitative and qualitative methods via a discourse technique. The paintings produced snap shots of arithmetic and technological know-how schooling that have been dramatically assorted for every of the international locations concerned: France, Japan, Norway, Spain, Switzerland, and the USA. to give an explanation for those modifications, it's proposed that the interplay of curriculum and pedagogy is culturally precise and yields lecture room studying studies which are qualitatively diverse from state to kingdom. this concept has profound implications for a way foreign schooling examine is interpreted.
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Extra info for Characterizing Pedagogical Flow: An Investigation of Mathematics and Science Teaching in Six Countries
The following displays show significant variation across the six countries in what students are expected to do as part of learning mathematics and science. Variation in the cognitive and performance demands placed on students calls for substantively different learning environments and experiences. To the extent that these differences are present in national curriculum and pedagogical implementations, qualitative differences in student learning among countries should be expected. Figure 2-9 and 2-10 illustrate the diversity among broad performance expectation categories.
For example, in mathematics a student could simply memorize multiplication facts to satisfy a ‘knowing’ expectation. He or she might learn to repeat without thinking a procedure for multiplying two two-digit numbers together (a ‘routine procedure’ expectation). However, different, more-difficult-to-attain understanding of multiplication would be needed to demonstrate why that procedure gave a correct answer when multiplying two two-digit numbers (one aspect of ‘mathematical reasoning’). Similarly, ‘understanding definitions’ of scientific vocabulary seems less demanding than ‘theorizing, analyzing and solving problems’ by recognizing applicable scientific principles or by constructing, interpreting and applying a model.
The broad-stroke curriculum analysis and the finer-grained case study analysis complement one another. A further look at the broad portraits is needed before moving to the case studies. WHAT ROLE DO CURRICULUM FRAMEWORKS AND TEXTBOOKS PLAY IN EACH COUNTRY? The specific role of textbooks and official curriculum frameworks differs among countries depending largely on how centrally administered the educational system is. Curriculum frameworks can be official publications of a centralized government agency or created at a regional or local level.