By John E.J. Schmitz
This monograph condenses the proper and pertinent literature on blanket and selective CVD of tungsten (W) right into a unmarried plausible quantity. The publication provides the reader with the mandatory history to elevate, high-quality song, and effectively keep a CVD-W method in a creation set-up. fabrics deposition chemistry, gear, technique expertise, advancements, and purposes are defined.
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Extra resources for Chemical Vapor Deposition of Tungsten and Tungsten Silicides for VLSI/ ULSI Applications
This cannot be tolerated since shorts between aluminum lines will occur. In a detailed study [de Graaf et aI.
63 , Smith et a1. 64 ]. The trick is to use an etch process which has an etch selectivity of tungsten over the sacrificial material of about one. In this case the roughness of the tungsten is planarized before the etch reaches the oxide level. An additional advantage is that every contact size is allowed. A disadvantage is that the degree of planarization needs to be very high otherwise tungsten strings remain after etch back. Polyimide has been proposed as a candidate for the sacrificial layer.
The Thiele modulus: In designing reaction conditions for optimal step coverage, it appears that a dimensionless number, the Thiele modulus (NT)' is very useful. This number describes whether a reaction in a porous catalysts will be mass transport limited. Translated into terms of step coverage this means that as soon as the deposition inside the trench becomes diffusion controlled concentration gradients will develop and consequently the step coverage tends to degrade. 25 the reaction can be considered as being mass transport limited.