Contemporary Latin America: Development and Democracy beyond by Francisco Panizza

By Francisco Panizza

Latin the USA has replaced dramatically over the last few years. whereas the Nineteen Nineties have been ruled through the political orthodoxy of the Washington Consensus and the political uniformity of centre correct governments the 1st decade of the recent century has obvious the emergence of a plurality of financial and political possible choices. In an summary of the background of the zone during the last twenty-five years this ebook strains the highbrow and political origins of the Washington Consensus, assesses its influence on democracy and fiscal improvement and discusses even if the emergence of numerous left-wing governments within the quarter represents a transparent holiday with the politics and guidelines of the Washington Consensus. sincerely written and conscientiously argued the publication should be of curiosity to teachers, scholars of Latin American politics and anyone attracted to figuring out modern Latin America..

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The Fund must also ensure that the loans are repaid promptly in order to be able to assist other member countries in time of need. To ensure that these conditions are fulfilled, it is in principle a legitimate part of the Fund’s purpose to attach conditions to its lending, particularly as, in the Fund’s view, conditions would merely be a statement of the policies that a deficit country should adopt in any case (Thirkell-White 2005: 21–2). The legitimacy of the IMF’s conditionality mechanism has, however, been challenged on three grounds: the way in which con­ditions are imposed, their content, and the interests they serve.

Not surprisingly, these questions became politically more salient as the number, depth and length of IMF interventions increased in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The Fund itself was constrained by its own charter on the growthpromoting policies that it could impose, and divided on whether it should advance a particular growth strategy. In the early 1980s the Fund did not have a model for making adjustments more conducive to economic growth, and paid little attention to the impact of adjustment programmes upon the poor.

In an ironic twist, the heirs of the orthodox economists who had confronted ISI’s ‘structuralists’ in the 1970s turned into the new structuralists, but the structural reforms they advocated were opposite in nature to those favoured in the 1960s by the structuralists of national-popular ISI persuasion. Politically, the failure of the new democratic governments to secure economic order delegitimized incumbents and undermined relations of representation between citizens and their political representatives.

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