By Gerald Kutcher
Within the 1960s University of Cincinnati radiologist Eugene Saenger infamously performed human experiments on sufferers with complicated melanoma to envision how overall physique radiation may deal with the affliction. yet, less than agreement with the dep. of safety, Saenger extensively utilized those self same sufferers as proxies for infantrymen to respond to questions about wrestle effectiveness on a nuclear battlefield. utilizing the Saenger case as a method to think again chilly battle scientific trials, Contested medication examines the inherent tensions on the middle of medical stories of the time. Emphasizing the deeply intertwined and together supportive courting among melanoma remedy with radiation and army medication, Gerald Kutcher explores post–World conflict II melanoma trials, the efforts of the govt. to regulate scientific ethics, and the real function of army investigations within the improvement of an efficient remedy for youth leukemia. while so much histories of human experimentation pass judgement on learn comparable to Saenger’s opposed to idealized practices, Contested medication eschews such an procedure and considers why Saenger’s friends and later critics had a lot trouble achieving an unambiguous moral review. Kutcher’s enticing research deals an method of medical ethics and examine imperatives that lays naked some of the conflicts and tensions of the postwar interval.
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Extra resources for Contested Medicine: Cancer Research and the Military
71. Thompson, “Moral Economy,” 217. 2 The Production of Trustworthy Knowledge A refreshingly unstructured pronouncement emerged from some members of the French Academy of Political and Moral Sciences. Discussing the Nazi experiments they suggested that no written law can provide a strict ruling that knowledge gained for science constitutes the ultimate justiﬁcation, but that the responsible, experienced, prudent scientist—who is the only type of experimentalist to be tolerated—will draw his own limit.
Fisher’s own was the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project. 32. Fisher was cleverly skirting the standard sequence, at least in the textbooks, that dose escalation should be carried out in Phase I studies prior to the initiation of Phase III randomized trials (Pocock, Clinical Trials, chap. 1). 33. Meinert, Clinical Trials, chap. 5. 34. Cox, “Brief History,” 27. For centers of calculation, see Latour, Science in Action, chap. 6. 35. Fisher, “Clinical Trials for Cancer,” 2613. For the early randomization procedures used in the United Kingdom, each new patient was assigned a number in sequence, and an envelope marked with that number was opened to determine the patient’s assigned treatment (Hill, “Clinical Trial” , 280).
71 To return to the postwar landscape of clinical trials, we ﬁnd it covered with larger and ever more carefully designed studies. As the trials grew in size and number, and as they inﬂuenced ever-larger cohorts of individuals, the battles over the epistemic claims of clinical trials only increased. To counter these arguments, new institutions, cooperative groups, and more sophisticated methods of analysis arose. But the widening scope of the 40 • C H A P T E R O N E medical and lay communities affected by clinical trials and by new institutions and cooperative groups further increased the number and range of the grounds on which medical knowledge could be contested.