By Alexander D. Bershadsky, Juri M. Vasiliev (auth.)
This booklet, like different monographs of the mobile Organelles sequence, isn't a finished evaluation, yet an advent to the examine of cytoskeleton. as a result, we describe purely the most proof and ideas concerning cyto skeleton. take into account that, choice and interpretation used to be motivated via the non-public pursuits and reviews of the authors, even if we tried to be as reasonable as attainable. We needed to familiarize the reader not just with good confirmed evidence, yet with present unsolved difficulties. for that reason, the phrases "possibly," "maybe," "not known," and "not transparent" are even more widespread during this textual content than in lots of others. in keeping with the fashion of the sequence, really brief lists of addi tional readings are given on the finish of every bankruptcy; those lists comprise normally the new reports and some unique papers describing convinced phenomena intimately. Few references are brought up within the textual content; those citations are given to aid the reader locate the resource of yes new info and theories, which aren't mentioned at size within the reports. against this, many well-established evidence and widely recognized theories should not cited.
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Extra info for Cytoskeleton
The presence of a-actinin in the structures, binding together the groups of filaments in sarcomeres and other bundles, was mentioned in the Introduction. Gelating proteins are often found in filament networks. For instance, antibody to filamin stains the leading edge and actin bundles in fibroblasts (Fig. 26); ABP is a component of the cortical network of macrophages. 1 are essential for the formation of bidimensional networks in erythrocytes. Certain genetic defects of spectrin make the cytoskeletons of erythrocytes unstable and prone to lysis so that persons with these defects have hemolytic anemias.
Solution containing only actin can be very viscous owing to entanglement of filaments and, possibly, to formation of some weak bonds between these filaments. However, this solution can "creep" when subjected to mechanical stress, thus retaining certain characteristics of liquid. Solid gels, in contrast to liquids, do not creep. Formation of solid gel from actin filaments can take place when special proteins, making stable cross-links between the filaments, are added. At the constant concentration of polymerized actin, the minimal amount of cross-linking protein needed to form the gel is inversely proportional to the average length of the filament.
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