By Ramin Jahanbegloo (auth.)
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3 However, though the ideals of constitutionalism and rule of law were developed by thinkers such as Mirza Malkum Khan, Mirza Aqa Khan Kermani and many others, it was principally through the nonviolent constitutional movement itself that these concepts gained popularity and were tested in Iranian society. As such, the constitutionalist Ulama played the role of mediators who connected the intellectual dissent to a nonviolent movement. This is because, in addition to the socioeconomic and political factors listed above, the Ulama had religious tradition on their side.
But it also gravely weakened the image of stability and order in the mind of Iranians. 1057/9781137330178 Democracy and Lawfulness 41 factional struggle in the Majlis encouraged foreign powers to promote the division of Iran. Throughout the Constitutional Revolution, Russian and British forces managed to increase their hold in the country; Russia in the North, England in the South. The overthrow of a Shah sympathetic to these foreign powers seemed to do little to diminish their control of Iran.
M. Subhdam, Paris, 1985, p. 56. , p. 12. 6 Cyrus Masroori, “European Thought in Nineteenth-Century Iran: David Hume and Others,” Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 61, no. 4 (October 2000): 668. 7 26 April 1867, Archives, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Tehran, Iran, cited in Guit Nashat, The Origins of Modern Reform in Iran, 1870–1880, Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1982, pp. 35–36. 8 Mehrdad Kia, “Constitutionalism, Economic Modernization and Islam in the Writings of Mirza Yusef Khan Mostashar od-Dowleh,” Middle Eastern Studies Vol.