By Tsutomu and Kayoko Okamoto
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Extra info for Development of Gait By Electromyography
The activities of the LG and VM subsequently became more pronounced shortly before and during floor contact in the 3rd and 4th months, to the point that one might associate such activity with the parachute reaction. Milani-Comparetti et al. (1967) observed from movement analysis that the parachute reaction of the lower limbs begins to appear at about 4 months after birth. Our observations, if they are of the same phenomenon, suggest that the beginnings of the parachute reaction can be found by EMG much earlier than by visual observation of behavior.
In the latter half of swing phase, the VM and LG showed strong activities with the knee extending and the ankle plantarflexing to prevent falling. These characteristically excessive discharge patterns of infant gait were not seen in subsequent childhood gait or in adult gait, and they began to decrease or disappear after about 1 month of learning to walk. It is in this sense that these leg muscle activities are considered EMG characteristics of infant walking at the onset of independent walking.
LIi,/"Il. 5 months Fig. 3-5. EMGs of infant supported walking (Left: at 6 months after birth, Center: at 9 months after birth, Right: at 11,5 months after birth), Fig. 5 months after birth. After around 6 months after birth, the infant began to crawl after toys and tended to show comparatively stable stepping when supported upright. At around 11 months, 1 month before walking independently, the infant became able to stand by herself and to walk with one-handed support. The relatively pronounced flexion of the hip seen in the first part of swing phase of the previous period was slightly reduced.