Differend: Phrases in Dispute by Jean-Francois Lyotard

By Jean-Francois Lyotard

A number one modern French thinker turns his cognizance to "differends"--disputes: the flip of all Western philosophy towards language; the decline of metaphysics; the retreat of Marxism; transforming into political depression.

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14. This translation is by Jay Garfield in his The Fundamental Wisdom of the Middle Way (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995), 297–298. 15. Here I quote David J. Kalupahana’s translation in his Nagarjuna: The Philosophy of the Middle Way (Albany, New York: State University of New York Press, 1986), 399. 20 Comparative Theories of Nonduality of clinging (tanha), the principal cause of suffering, according to the Buddha’s Four Noble Truths). Clinging to “right view” (Buddhist teaching that leads to awakening) itself binds one to suffering.

24:8–10)14 Some interpreters take Nagarjuna to be negating conventional truth in favor of sunyata (emptiness) understood as an unconditioned or absolute or ultimate truth. Indeed, earlier Buddhists had identified the doctrine of dependent co-arising with ultimate truth. For Nagarjuna, however, “emptiness” had a double meaning, a conventional one and an ultimate one. The conventional meaning is found in verse 18 of chapter 24 of his Mulamadhyamikakarika: “We state that whatever is dependent arising, that is emptiness.

In this and the following chapter I will examine metaphysical, epistemological, and social issues in Hebraic culture, taking note of the extent to which they can be illuminated by the Asian, especially Mahayana Buddhist, concept of nonduality. Where there is some overlap between the Asian and Hebraic concepts, we may find the basis for Western nonduality. Perhaps where the two sets of concepts diverge, we will find clues to Western nonduality. Metaphysical Nondualism and the Bible Classical Christianity was the culmination of a long interaction between Hebraic and Greco-Roman culture.

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