Embedded Systems and Computer Architecture by G.R. Wilson (Auth.)

By G.R. Wilson (Auth.)

Content material:
Preface

, Pages xi-xii
Notation utilized in the text

, Page xiii
1 - Binary numbers

, Pages 3-11
2 - common sense expressions

, Pages 12-32
3 - digital good judgment circuits

, Pages 33-51
4 - desktop arithmetic

, Pages 52-67
5 - desktop design

, Pages 71-85
6 - guideline set and code assembly

, Pages 86-99
7 - software structures

, Pages 100-124
8 - uncomplicated machine circuits

, Pages 125-137
9 - enter and output ports

, Pages 138-147
10 - enter and output methods

, Pages 148-171
11 - extra devices

, Pages 172-184
12 - Assembler and linker tools

, Pages 185-195
13 - The keep an eye on unit

, Pages 196-211
14 - greater computers

, Pages 215-224
15 - Cache memory

, Pages 225-234
16 - reminiscence management

, Pages 235-244
Appendix A - G80 guideline set

, Pages 245-260
Appendix B - ASCII personality codes

, Page 261
Appendix C - the enter and output devices

, Pages 262-283
Appendix D - The GDS assembler and linker

, Pages 284-290
Index

, Pages 291-294

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Sample text

9 P r o g r a m m a b l e logic devices* There is a similarity in all the combinational logic expressions and their circuits that we have considered. All the expressions are of the form: output - A N D o f some inputs + A N D o f some inputs + ... + A N D o f some inputs, where some of the inputs may be inverted. This leads directly to circuits that comprise a layer of AND gates, each of which performs the logical AND of some inputs, the outputs of which are connected to a single OR gate that produces the required output signal.

Xxxx x 2 E, that is the first bit of the number is always 1. This is called the normalized representation. Since the first bit of a normalized number is always 1, there is no need to store it. bbbb, it being assumed that the first bit of F is 1. We now have: number = (1 + F ) x 2 E. To accommodate signed numbers, we add a sign bit, S, such that if S = = 0, the number is positive. We now have: number = ( - 1)s x (1 + F) x 2 E. 12. 12 Popular IEEE floating-point formats The exponent, E, is stored as a biased number, so that the 8-bit exponent of single precision numbers is written: Largest: Smallest: llllllll 00000000 = 255 in pure binary = +128biased = 0 in pure binary = - 1 2 7 biased.

Assume that a logical 1 to a display segment causes that segment to illuminate. A\/B C / \ D Segment disposition and labels. X,Y,Z Display 000 Blank 001 010 011 100 101 /\ \/ 110 \/ /\ 111 Design a state machine using D type flip-flops having the following state transition table. This device is a self-starting ring counter. Present state Next state C B A C+ B+ A+ 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 50 Embedded Systems and Computer Architecture Design a state machine using D type flip-flops having the following state transition table.

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