Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and by G. R. Evans, Malcolm Potts, Jan P. Hogendijk (auth.),

By G. R. Evans, Malcolm Potts, Jan P. Hogendijk (auth.), Helaine Selin (eds.)

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The distinction between a northern and a southern tradition has its roots in prehistoric times. The earliest Chinese farming sites date from the sixth millennium BC, later than those of the Fertile Crescent. Archaeologists used to consider that farming diffused throughout the Old World from 17 that single center; the current evidence suggests however that within China itself there were at least two independent centers of plant domestication . At the 5000 BC neolithic site ofBanpo, in the loesslands of Northwest China, the dryland crop of Setaria millet was grown.

It is important to note that each complex tone has its own unique characteristic harmonic spectrum and wave form . There does not yet exist a satisfactory system for classifying tone quality. The fivefold classification ofideophones, membramophones, chordophones, electrophones and aerophones is again a classification based on musical instruments. In addition to the tone quality of sound due to the soundproducing materials, the ancient Chinese were also interested in the variation in tone quality coming from the configuration of musical instruments and the different ways of playing musical instruments.

This insistent categorical contrast on "uplands" and "wetlands" remains in stark contrast to local farmers' knowledge and practice in which seed types and labor resources are invested up and down catenary sequences, and across the upland-wetland divide, according to circumstances. Standing on the boundary between the rain-fed and water-logged soil types in their farms, Sierra Leonean peasants repudiate any gap between themselves and more technologically advanced fanners in Asia, and see instead only an opportunity for flexible adjustment to changing conditions.

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