By Ray Taras
Is Europe certainly uniting or as a substitute falling aside due to anti-immigrant prejudices, an important Islamic inflow, and historical intra-European hatreds? This cutting edge and interesting publication explores the resources of Europe's culture-based divide, arguing that the belief of 2 Europes is grounded either in truth and fable. The accession procedure that introduced a dozen new contributors into the eu Union after 2004 has highlighted the persisting gulf among _old_ and _new_ Europe regardless of the numerous actual limitations that experience crumbled. Ray Taras examines the treaties, political rhetoric, citizen attitudes, and literary narratives of belonging and separation that either bind and fray the cloth of Europe. all through, this interdisciplinary paintings offers a complete, hard-hitting, and unabashed assessment of the way enlarged Europe embraces contrasting understandings of its political domestic.
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Extra info for Europe Old and New: Transnationalism, Belonging, Xenophobia
The Commission supervises the implementation of treaties and manages EU funds, thereby exercising important executive powers. 19 Commissioners are appointed by the governments of the member states, but they take an oath to act independently of them. They are therefore expected to think in pan-European terms. This stands in contrast to the EU Council, whose members represent national governments. Before the 2004 enlargement, each of the large member states appointed two commissioners, the smaller states one each.
In 1963, the Court established the principles of the primacy of Community law on all member states—that is, its consistent and uniform application—and of direct effect—citizens claim their rights in the states’ court systems. While it has no means of enforcement proper to a state, the ECJ has final authority on all legal matters and its decisions are binding on states and individuals. The Court’s jurisdiction is clearly defined. Its best-known responsibility involves judging the legality of Community acts, of actions by one member state against another, and of actions against the European Commission.
In a similar way, the Parliament has now been given equal rights on budgetary decisions with the Council of Ministers. As we have observed, the body’s political control over the European Commission was also augmented. Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) are elected by direct universal suffrage every five years under a proportional representation system, which has some national variations. MEPs are considered delegates, exercising their mandates independently, and so cannot be bound by instructions from their country’s government or from a political group.