Foundations of Knowledge Base Management: Contributions from by Wolfgang Bibel, Jean-Marie Nicolas (auth.), Joachim W.

By Wolfgang Bibel, Jean-Marie Nicolas (auth.), Joachim W. Schmidt, Constantino Thanos (eds.)

In the earlier, utilized man made intelligence platforms have been equipped with specific emphasis on common reasoning equipment meant to operate successfully, even if simply rather little domain-specific wisdom used to be to be had. In different phrases, AI know-how aimed toward the processing of information kept less than relatively basic illustration schemes. these days, the focal point has been redirected to the function performed by means of particular and specified wisdom, instead of to the reasoning tools themselves. Many new program structures are established round wisdom bases, i. e. , they're in accordance with huge collections offacts, ideas, and heuristics that cap­ ture wisdom a few particular area of purposes. adventure has proven that once utilized in blend with wealthy wisdom bases, even uncomplicated reasoning equipment should be super potent in a wide selection of challenge domain names. wisdom base development and administration will hence turn into the foremost think about the improvement of practicable knowledge-based ap­ plications. wisdom Base administration platforms (KBMSs) are being proposed that offer hassle-free environments for the development, retrieval, and manipUlation of enormous shared wisdom bases. as well as deductive reasoning, KBMSs require operational features reminiscent of concurrent entry, integrity upkeep, mistakes restoration, protection, and maybe distribution. For the improvement ofKBMSs, the necessity to combine suggestions and applied sciences from diverse components, comparable to synthetic Intel­ ligence, Databases, and good judgment, has been well known. one of many critical matters for KBMSs is the framework used for wisdom representation-semantic networks, frames, ideas, and logics are proposed via the AI and common sense communities.

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The discussion in [KOW A79] is especially relevant here. The clauses PI-4 which presently require complete event descriptions can be modified so that they use the minimum number of conditions needed to establish the conclusion. PI-4 can then be replaced by Rank(x y after(e» if and and Rank(x y before(e» if and and Rank(x y before(e» if and and Rank(x y after(e» if and and Act(e hire) Object(e x) Destination(e y) Act(e leave) Object(e x) Source(e y) Act(e promote) Object(e x) Source(e y) Act(e promote) Object(e x) Destination(e y) PI' P2' P3' P4' Thus, for example, P4' does not require the condition Source(e z) which identifies the "object's" rank immediately before promotion.

5. El E4 0>-----------<0>----------<0 Mary professor Mary lecturer _------<0 John lecturer E3 E2 time ---+1--------+-1--------+-1 10 May 1970 1 June 1975 1 Oct 1980 Fig. 5 2. A Logic-Based Calculus of Events 27 The conclusions illustrated in Fig. 5 can be justified if we can prove the equalities: after(EI) = before(E4) after(E4) = before(E3). Together with the rules of equality and the fact that E4 ends before(E4) and starts after(E4), these equalities imply that E4 ends after(E I) and E4 starts before(E3).

QI using PI-8, Templ-2 and an appropriate definition of ::::::. The first three conditions of clause Temp 1 are solved without difficulty, leaving the query not after(E 1) < < before(E4) ? Q2 To show this succeeds we must show that the query after(E I) < < before(E4) ? Q3 fails. There is only one clause we can use, Temp2, and so we must show that the query End(after(E I) e") and Start(before(E4) e*) and e" :::::: e* ? Q4 fails. PROLOG tries to solve the first condition first. But this is just like the original query, and PROLOG goes into a non-terminating loop.

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