Fundamental Forces of Nature: The Story of Gauge Fields by Kerson Huang

By Kerson Huang

This booklet is a wonderful evaluation of gauge fields. The scope is from Maxwell to renormalization teams, with an epilogue that diagrammatically sums up the previous couple of chapters. The e-book is a popularization, now not a textual content e-book. it truly is akin to Zee's "Fearful Symmetry". if you happen to have no idea what gauge fields, QED and QCD are approximately, this can be not really where to begin. but when you would like a truly readable assessment, with equations, yet without difficulty, i like to recommend this one hugely.

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He assumed that the electron in a hydrogen atom forms a standing wave about the central nucleus. Thus, the length of its orbit must be a multiple of the wavelength. This quantizes the orbits and their energies. When an electron jumps from a higher orbit to a lower one, the energy difference E is released in the form of light, whose frequency April 19, 2007 50 10:14 Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in Fundamental Forces of Nature: The Story of Gauge Fields Fig. 3 J. J. Thomson (1856–1940) and Ernest Rutherford (1871–1937) elucidated the structure of the atom as a central nucleus surrounded by electrons.

The components of the vectors f and a change from frame to frame, but the relation is the same in all frames. April 19, 2007 28 10:14 Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in Fundamental Forces of Nature: The Story of Gauge Fields Maxwell’s equations, however, are not covariant with respect to the Galilean transformation, because the velocity of light c must be the same in all frames, according to Einstein’s interpretation of the Michelson–Morley experiment. There can be only one law of transformation, and that means Newton’s equation should be revised.

With J. J. Thomson’s discovery of the electron in 1897, and Ernest Rutherford’s discovery of the atomic nucleus in 1906, it became clear that an atom consists of electrons surrounding a small, heavy, positively charged nucleus. 2. Bohr’s atom In a flash of insight, Niels Bohr derived the Balmer formula in 1913, in a simplistic model that nevertheless captured the essence of the atom. He assumed that the electron in a hydrogen atom forms a standing wave about the central nucleus. Thus, the length of its orbit must be a multiple of the wavelength.

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