Fundamentals of Laser Interactions by Fritz Ehlotzky

By Fritz Ehlotzky

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For therapeutic and physiotherapeutic treatments, dielectric heating is most appropriate. 13 MHz. The dynamics of these treatments is different than aesthetic procedures. The treatments are stationary, and penetration depth is greater, but RF power densities are lower. 68 MHz. The dielectric heating is dominant at this frequency, providing a possibility of deep homogeneous heating up to 20- to 25-mm depth. It should be mentioned that at high frequencies (more than several MHz), it is necessary to operate at frequencies permitted for industrial, scientific, and medical applications (ISM frequencies).

This means that the travelling electromagnetic wave propagates between the RF amplifier and the impedance matching system. Furthermore, it means that RF voltage is equivalent at all points along the RF path. The voltage U alters in time in accordance with: U = Asin(2πft – ϕ) where A = amplitude of voltage and ϕ = initial phase. This equation means that the voltage reaches the same amplitude periodically at all points along the RF path at different times. A standing wave is sustained between the impedance matching system and the electrode; therefore, at any given point the voltage oscillates between 0 (the node) and twice the amplitude (antinode).

This pain was attributed to the heat caused by the device. Based on the neural gating theory proposed by Melzack and Wall (1962), vibration was introduced into subsequent systems to modify pain fiber recruitment [28]. As described earlier, the most common postprocedural findings are erythema and edema [29]. These are short-lasting in the majority of patients [8]. Edwards et al. [15] reported that erythema lasted less than 24 h in 50% of patients, and no patients had erythema persisting longer than one week.

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