By Mohammad Gholi Majd
"A thoroughly clean interpretation of the 1921-1941 Pahlavi interval. . . . Majd has come across a gold mine of knowledge in this arguable interval of Persian background. . . . the main points and freshness of the figures are explosive. . . . much more explosive are the land acquisitions fabrics and the data at the paintings of the Shah's mystery police."--Hafez Farmayan, college of Texas at Austin
Using lately declassified U.S. country division records, Mohammad Gholi Majd describes the rampant tyranny and destruction of Iran within the a long time among the 2 international wars in a sensational but completely scholarly examine that would rewrite the political and fiscal heritage of the country.
The ebook starts with the British invasion of Iran in April 1918 and ends with the Anglo-Russian invasion in August 1941. although historians are conscious of the occasions that ensued, beforehand they've got had no written proof of the dreadful importance of the actions. Majd files how the British delivered to energy an imprecise and semi-illiterate army officer, Reza Khan, who used to be made shah in 1925.
Thereafter, Majd indicates, Iran used to be subjected to a degree of brutality no longer visible for hundreds of years. He additionally records the monetary plunder of the rustic in the course of the interval: files convey that Reza Shah looted the majority of Iran's oil sales at the pretext of shopping for palms, accumulating at the least $100 million in his London financial institution money owed and large sums in ny and Switzerland. no longer even Iran's historic crown jewels have been spared.
In distinction to incomplete and unreliable British documents for the interval, the lately declassified data and financial institution files that Majd makes use of surround quite a lot of political, social, army, and financial concerns. a piece with substantial implications, this ebook will right the parable in Iranian heritage that the interval 1921-41 used to be certainly one of unqualified development and reform.
Mohammad Gholi Majd is the writer of Resistance to the Shah: Landowners and Ulama in Iran.
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Additional resources for Great Britain and Reza Shah: The Plunder of Iran, 1921-1941
We cannot imagine the vast sums that were transferred to foreign banks by the Pahlavis during the 1960s and 1970s, when the oil money began to flow in earnest. Given that Reza Shah stole most of Iran’s oil revenues and a great deal of prime rural and urban real estate, it would have been most uncharacteristic if he had not similarly helped himself to Iran’s crown jewels. Chapter 13 documents the looting of Iran’s crown jewels by Reza Shah and his subordinates during 1924–41. Finally, the records indicate that the transfer of the crown jewels to America was continued by his son and successor, at least during the 1950s.
August 1941, however, was the beginning of the end of British domination of Iran. For the people of Iran it meant freedom from the nightmare of British rule through Reza Khan. In early 1942, taking advantage of the difficulties and weakness of the British, the United States had begun to take control of Iranian affairs. The presidential finding signed by Franklin D. Roosevelt on March 10, 1942, declared the defense of the government of Iran to be vital to the defense of the United States. It opened the way for assumption of LendLease assistance to Iran and the appointment of various American advisory missions, including military, police, gendarmerie, and financial missions to Iran.
But with British support, the Vossough government was “unshakable”: The intrigues against the cabinet, carried on principally by Ain-ed-Dowleh, Saad-ed-Dowleh, and Samsam-es-Sultaneh, lost a great deal of intensity after the reconciliation between the Shah and Vossough-ed-Dowleh late in January. The British Legation was determined to support Vossough-ed-Dowleh and to keep him in power as long as possible and with this support the cabinet’s position was practically unshakable. The situation is so secure that Vossough-edDowleh, who has not been in the best of health recently, is considering going to Europe for a much needed change.