Hard lessons: primary schools, community, and social capital by Paul A. Francis, World Bank

By Paul A. Francis, World Bank

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The surveys were carried out by six zonal research teams led by Dr. ) Hawa A. Biu, Dr. J. Shehu, Dr. O. Alubo, Dr. M. Nzewi, Dr. G. Daramola and Dr. I. Agi. Membership of the teams is given in Annex 2. Within NPEC, technical guidance and logistical support were provided by, among others, Dr. P. Banu, Dr. C. Ubani, and Mr. M. Yissa. The World Bank Task Managers were Sudharshan Canagarajah and Eileen Nkwanga of the Africa Region Human Development group. Foluso Okunmadewa of the World Bank Resident Mission in Abuja provided extensive technical and administrative support.

Teacher effectiveness and student learning are further limited by the inadequate supply of materials, frequent changes in recommended textbooks, the current textbook lending policy, and the late supply of record books. Most teachers and headteachers were committed to their vocation. However, extremely low remuneration, poor working conditions, and inadequate facilities have inevitably eroded motivation and satisfaction. Many teachers do not have the minimum qualification for primary school teaching.

Regional imbalances in enrollments were found, with lower enrollment in the northern compared to southern zones, particularly with respect to female pupils. Attendance levels vary considerably between schools, and are often low in rural areas, especially during the farming season and on market days. The transfer of management of the federal allocation for teachers' salaries and operational cost from Local Government Areas (LGA) to the National Primary Education Commission (NPEC) and the State Primary Education Boards (SPEBs) has largely succeeded in ensuring that teachers' salaries are paid.

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