By Robert Kallet-Marx
In a single of an important contributions to the research of Roman imperialism to seem in recent times, Robert Kallet-Marx argues for a much less simplistic, extra fluid realizing of the evolution of Roman strength in the Balkans, Greece, and Asia Minor. He distinguishes among hegemonythe skill of the Romans to command obedience at the foundation of a true or implied army threatand the later phenomenon of empire, demonstrating that Roman imperium used to be now not the results of the surprising imposition of geographically outlined provinces or everlasting armies. really, the mixing of the Greek international right into a Roman imperial process was once a posh means of evolution requiring mutual variation through either Romans and Greeks.
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Extra info for Hegemony to Empire: The Development of the Roman Imperium in the East from 148 to 62 BC
Att .  No evidence suggests that such "freedom" implied the existence of a bordering province; insofar as it implied a guarantee of non-interference from Roman authorities—not always rigorously observed in practice, and probably not made an explicit feature of the guarantee until the late Republic —it was not an empty title anywhere within a Roman ― 49 ― magistrate's potential reach. One might compare the senatus consultum of 169 that specifically instructed Greek communities not to respond to the demands of Roman magistrates unless specially authorized by a decree of the Senate (Polyb.
Fabius Maximus Servilianus, whose presence ca. 144 is explained (as noted above) by the extraordinary situation. In numerous cases, some of which have already been mentioned, proconsular arbitration or mediation was requested by one of the parties in a dispute between Greeks, but we cannot suppose that these cases were normally of any great interest in themselves to Rome. The proconsul Sisenna, and after him the Senate itself, need not have been particularly eager to hear the tedious and convoluted story of the squabble between the Athenian and the Isthmian-Nemean guilds of Dionysiac artists—unless for comic relief.
11] Cicero's phrase ― 46 ― no more implies the imposition of some formal structure of subjection than his claim two sentences previously that Flamininus Macedoniam subegit . Rather, the point of the phrase is the factual subjection of one party to the other, not necessarily absolute or formally defined, typically following upon defeat, conquest, or surrender.  It is conquest that is relevant to the general theme of winning rich booty through victory, not some putative creation of a province.