High-speed digital design.A handbook of black magic by Johnson H.W.

By Johnson H.W.

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Therefore, retargeting to domain-specific architectures is very difficult and the generated compilers have problems with special-purpose registers, instruction-level parallelism, and the memory access structure. This is also confirmed by the DSPStone project [ZVSM94], where several GNU-based C compilers for DSPs turned out to generate code of very low quality. 5), several research projects aimed at providing retargetable compiler technology for embedded processors. The MSSQ compiler [Nowa87, Marw93, LeMa98] is capable of generating microcode for almost arbitrary data path architectures modeled in an HDL.

As in most programming languages, C has the concept of functions and local variables. These variables exist only during the execution of some particular function at program runtime and therefore have to reside in a runtime stack or, if possible, in registers. For DSPs, which have a very limited amount of registers, it is reasonable to assume that in fact most local variables have to reside in the stack. ,. 3. a) Stack layout during function execution: The stack contains the function parameters (pushed by the calling function), the return address (pushed by the call instruction), the local variables, and a spill space for temporarily saving register contents.

2 This is sometimes called a roving or floating frame pointer. 5. maximum weighted path b) 35 a d b offset assignment c) Access graph model for offset assignment 2. e. a path that touches all nodes once. From these observations it is obvious that an optimum offset assignment corresponds to a maximum weighted Hamiltonian path in G (fig. 5 band c). Bartley presented an 0( n 3 ) algorithm that heuristically finds good paths. In [LDK+95b], Liao showed that the offset assignment problem is NP-hard even for the simple case (1, 0, 1) -OA, and he presented a more efficient heuristic also based on the access graph model.

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