History and Crime (Key Approaches to Criminology) by Dr Barry S Godfrey, Dr Paul Lawrence, Chris A Williams

By Dr Barry S Godfrey, Dr Paul Lawrence, Chris A Williams

This full of life and available textual content offers an advent to the heritage of crime and crime keep watch over. It explains the ancient history that's crucial for an realizing of latest felony justice and examines the historic context for modern criminological debates. for every subject, the ebook presents an outline of present learn, touch upon present arguments, and hyperlinks to wider debates.

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If successful, they would be paid reasonable expenses from public funds, but the expense of mounting a prosecution naturally deterred many victims from doing so. Historian Peter King has exhaustively studied the way that the criminal justice system worked in the eighteenth century, and has come to some startling conclusions about the proportion of crime that was ever followed up with a prosecution. Working from diaries and personal papers, he estimated the number of times that victims of theft (a serious crime with harsh penalties, but one which was difficult and expensive to prosecute) ever reported the crime to the authorities, and pursued their suspects through the courts.

Once the Act was passed, the pattern changed, and less than 40% were released. Instead, a quarter faced trial on indictment for serious theft, and the rest were convicted by the magistrates in the lower courts (Williams, 2000). As well as a wider net for crimes of property, we have also seen that more and more people are drawn into the criminal justice system over the course of the twentieth century owing to a diminution of the tolerance of the use of violence as a summary punishment of juveniles by figures in authority.

No set of figures should be used for this purpose without carefully examining all the conditions and circumstances or without making due allowance for influences, other than actual increase or decrease of crime, which affect the figures; but in some cases the disturbing influences are so great as to deprive statistics, which at first sight might seem to show the growth or diminution of criminality, of all value from this point of view. Thus the total number of convictions on indictment, or of persons tried on indictment, has often been treated as if it afforded an index to the amount of crime; but the value of this test has been destroyed by those changes in procedure introduced by the Summary Jurisdiction Act, 1879, by which a large but uncertain number of cases that would formerly have been tried on indictment, are now brought within the jurisdiction of justices in Petty Sessions.

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