HIV AIDS in the Middle East And North Africa: The Costs of by Carol Jenkins, David A. Robalino

By Carol Jenkins, David A. Robalino

Contemporary facts means that the superiority of HIV/AIDS is expanding within the center East, North Africa, and japanese Mediterranean (MENA/EM) quarter, and that the entire variety of AIDS-related deaths has risen nearly sixfold because the early Nineteen Nineties. even if this determine is low in comparison with these for Africa, South Asia, and the Caribbean, low occurrence doesn't equivalent low hazard. the placement can switch swiftly, or even conservative estimates point out that AIDS poses a true probability to the region's long term progress. This booklet studies the present wisdom to be had at the incidence of HIV/AIDS within the MENA/EM quarter with the objective of stimulating dialogue between coverage- and selection makers. In different areas, early investments in stable surveillance and potent prevention courses have proved to be relative offers, in comparison with the prices of a full-blown epidemic. because the authors argue, the time to behave is now, entire occurrence degrees are nonetheless low. hence, they make particular options and supply most sensible practices and case stories from worldwide. This quantity is the made from the Joint United countries Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), the realm overall healthiness association (Eastern Mediterranean local Office), and the area financial institution. will probably be of specific curiosity to these within the fields of public well-being, social coverage, and financial improvement, in addition to to scholars and students of the quarter.

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2 (continued) CHAPTER 3 A Typology of Risk Factors The lack of solid epidemiological and sociological understanding of the contexts and determinants of risk behaviors throughout the region seriously limits intervention strategies. In the interest of facilitating a discussion concerned with devising new and creative means to implement properly targeted prevention programs, the following section examines the presumed main risk factors in the region and attempts to examine selected social, economic, and structural factors that can influence vulnerability.

In 1999, 5 in 2,249 STD patients. 3 among 60 IDUs (2000); 0 HIV in 337 STD patients (2001). 16 in STD patients (2000); no surveillance among FSWs or IDUs or MSM. 005% in Syrian travelers before departure; few cases detected; STDs: April to June 1999, 2,342 cases reported at four centers according to syndromic method. 6% (2002). 9% in 649 TB patients (1999). 72% heterosexual, 6% homosexual, 2% IDUs, 15% blood, 4% MTCT (1997–98). 6% unknown; 0 in 2,464 blood donors (1999). 6 per 100,000 between 1996 and 2000; among 245 men in social clubs, 13% nonmarital sex in past year (1995).

To a lesser extent, Jordan, Lebanon, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and Syria have also reported such clusters of cases. No information was available on the UAE or the Republic of Yemen, although in the Republic of Yemen there is some acknowledgment of the potential for IDU transmission. In 1998, IDUs represented two-thirds of all cases of AIDS reported in Bahrain and half of all cases reported in the Islamic Republic of Iran. In the same year, IDUs represented 30 percent of all recorded HIV (not yet AIDS) cases in the Islamic Republic of Iran, rising to about 65 percent by 2001.

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