How to Program and Interface the 6800 (Blacksburg Continuing by Andrew C. Staugaard Jr.

By Andrew C. Staugaard Jr.

Application and Interface How To's

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Extra info for How to Program and Interface the 6800 (Blacksburg Continuing Education)

Example text

Since tuples convey the idea of order, they are different from sets and bags. Here are some examples: Sets: {h, u, g, h) = {h, h, g, u=th, u, g} = {u, g, h}. Bags: [h, u, g, h] = [h, h, g, u] Tuples: (h, u, g, h) # (h, h, g, u) iz(h, u, g) # (u, g, h). [h, u, g] = [u, g, h]. Elementary Notions and Notations 16 The two important characteristics of a tuple are There is an order or arrangementof the elements. There may be redundant occurrencesof elements. Products of Sets We often need to represent information in the form of tuples, in which the elements in each tuple come from known sets.

Suppose also that the start symbols for the grammars of M and N are A and B, respectively. Then we have the following new languages and grammars: Union Rule: The language M u N starts with the two productions S -A I B. ProductRule: The language M . N starts with the production S -4 AB. Closure Rule: The language M* starts with the production S -AS I A. 27) to construct some grammars. For example, suppose we want to write a grammar for the following language: L = (A, a, b, aa, bb, ... , an, b , ...

We'll use the tuple notation to represent streams. ). Streams are useful in programming as inputs and outputs to computations. They normally have the same access and construction properties as lists. In other words, we can randomly access the first element and the stream consisting of everything except the first element. Similarly, if we are given an element and a stream, then we can construct a new stream. Strings A string is a finite sequence of zero or more elements that are placed next to each other in juxtaposition.