Instructional Scaffolding in STEM Education: Strategies and by Brian R. Belland

By Brian R. Belland

This publication makes use of meta-analysis to synthesize learn on scaffolding and scaffolding-related interventions in STEM (science, know-how, engineering, and arithmetic) schooling. in particular, the amount examines the level to which learn caliber, evaluate style, and scaffolding features (strategy, meant end result, fading agenda, scaffolding intervention, and coupled intervention) effect cognitive pupil results. It comprises unique descriptions of the theoretical foundations of scaffolding, scaffolding techniques which have been proposed to satisfy diversified meant studying results in STEM, and linked efficacy info. in addition, the e-book describes evaluate options and research designs that are used to judge the effect of scaffolding, and indicates new fields during which scaffolding concepts that experience confirmed efficacious should be used.

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Goals can influence how learners interpret and use scaffolds (Belland & Drake, 2013; Belland, Glazewski, & Richardson, 2011). Specifically, when learners view scaffolds, they do not all see the same thing; rather, they build a sign based on goals and cultural and historical factors (Belland & Drake, 2013; Leont’ev, 1974; Wertsch, 1991). A sign refers to the learners’ internal representation of what the tool is, what it should be used for, and what can be accomplished with it (Belland & Drake, 2013; Wertsch, 1991).

2 How New Skills Are Generated According to ACT-R Using ACT-R, complex skills can be broken down into knowledge chunks and production rules, which dictate how to apply the knowledge to solve problems (Anderson, 1996). Knowledge chunks all encode two or more elements, and how they relate (Anderson, 1983). Chunks never exceed seven elements, as informed by the cognitive information processing theory finding that one can at most manipulate 6–8 pieces of information in short-term memory at a time (Miller, 1956).

In this way, cultural patterns of interaction and ways of knowing are core to learning. From an activity theory perspective, the goal of instruction is to provide the tools and frameworks by which students can engage in the types of external actions that will allow them to internalize and integrate the desired content (Belland & Drake, 2013; Jonassen & Rohrer-Murphy, 1999). Such tools and frameworks may embed representations of the cultural knowledge that one wishes to instill in students. By interacting with such tools and frameworks, individuals may have the opportunity to construct the target cultural knowledge.

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