Iraq: The Search for National Identity by Liora Lukitz

By Liora Lukitz

The 1990-1991 problem within the heart East and the disturbances that undefined, threw the deep-seated divisions in the Iraqi inhabitants into concentration. This e-book examines the complexities of the interior cultural, political and non secular clash in the glossy country of Iraq.

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60 Although these resolutions did not materialize,61 their effect on Mosul’s population was enormous. 62 The option offered to the Kurds entailed the creation of a sub-liwa’ in Zakho, ‘Aqra, Dohuq and ‘Amadiya (Mosul liwa’), governed by a Kurdish mutasarif and Kurdish qaimaqams. 63 The meaning of this was manifold. Together with the recognition of the need to establish a special regime for the whole area, there was the need to separate administratively the Turkmen from the Kurds. Moreover, this option gave Sulaimaniya’s notables the opportunity to counterbalance Sheikh Mahmud’s hegemony over the area.

In their view, Iraq, a sovereign state, was not obliged to pay for its predecessors’ mistakes. 14 However, and this was a point of principle, the state-building process launched after independence implied the integration of the Assyrians as individuals not as a collective. 16 The project was subsequently abandoned and the Assyrian problem remained unsolved. A second point of discord was due to the Assyrians’ unwillingness to relinquish their cultural patrimony. The Assyrians strove for the implementation of a special curriculum in their primary schools whereby Syriac would be preserved as the official language and the fundamentals of their religion would be considered as cultural and national determinants.

This formula paved the way for the establishment of the principle of voluntary connection between the Kurds and the British. It also allowed Kifri and Kirkuk to preserve an autonomous position towards Sulaimaniya. 54 Consequently, Sulaimaniya’s authority and administrative system extended only to Köe, Raniya and Rowanduz in the Arbil liwa’,55 where opposition to Sulaimaniya hegemony had not been so firmly expressed. In these areas, Kurdish officials replaced Turkish and Arab ones, giving rise to a wave of contentment and the hope of political selfdetermination.

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