By Thomas Gibson (auth.)
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Additional resources for Islamic Narrative and Authority in Southeast Asia: From the 16th to the 21st Century
Scriptural Populism, 848–1171 The Mu’tazila philosophers were opposed by a populist movement known as the Ahl al-Hadith, the Hadith Folk. The hadith were collections of texts reporting the words and deeds of the Prophet Muhammad when he was not transmitting divine revelations but which were nevertheless considered to be a secondary source of guidance in the conduct of human affairs. The Ahl al-Hadith held that individual reason could never achieve the divine knowledge given to the prophets. Only the Koran and hadith could be used as a guide to correct belief and action.
He was then moved to South Africa in 1693, where he died in 1699. Yusuf ’s body was returned posthumously to Gowa in 1705, where it was buried in state near the graveyard of the kings. According to a traditional account of his life, Yusuf returned from death to impregnate the sultan’s daughter and to establish a line of charismatic shaikhs and a local branch of the Khalwati Sufi order with whom the royal house of Gowa established a relationship that endured into the twentieth century. In chapter 4, I examine an ideal model in which the traditional authority of local rulers, the charismatic authority of mystical adepts, and the bureaucratic authority of the VOC are seen as absolutely incompatible.
In the Age of the Prophets, from Adam to Muhammad, God granted knowledge of Himself in each generation to a particular man. These men were simultaneously shaikhs who were given insight into the inner nature of reality, and prophets who were given a set of laws governing the external nature of reality. Muhammad was the most perfect of the prophets and of the shaikhs. The enormous corpus of Ibn al-Arabi’s writings went on to inspire generations of esoteric mystics. The corpus was so voluminous and difficult that its popular impact mostly occurred by way of later interpreters.