John Archibald Campbell, Southern moderate, 1811-1889 by Robert Saunders

By Robert Saunders

Saunders provides the 1st complete biography of the southern U.S. Supreme

Court justice who championed either the U.S. structure and states' rights.

The lifetime of John Archibald Campbell displays approximately every

major improvement of 19th-century American heritage. He participated either

directly or in a roundabout way in occasions starting from the Indian elimination process

of the 1830s, to sectionalism and the Civil struggle, to Reconstruction and

redemption. even supposing now not a defender of slavery, he feared that abrupt abolition

would produce serious fiscal and social dislocation. He instructed southerners

to reform their exertions procedure and to arrange for the eventual abolition

of slavery. within the early 1850s he proposed a chain of reforms to strengthen

slave households and to teach the slaves with a purpose to arrange them for assimilation

into society as effective electorate. those perspectives unusual him from

many southerners who steadfastly maintained the sanctity of the peculiar


Born and schooled in Georgia, Campbell moved to Montgomery,

Alabama, within the early 1830s, the place he joined a winning legislation practice.

He served within the Alabama legislature for a short interval after which moved

with his family members to cellular to set up a legislations perform. In 1853 Campbell

was appointed an affiliate justice of the U.S. splendid court docket. His concurring

opinion within the Dred Scott case in 1857 derived now not from the standpoint

of preserving slavery yet from an try and go back political energy to

the states. because the sectional situation amassed warmth, Campbell suggested moderation.

He turned broadly detested within the North as a result of his protection of states'

rights, and he used to be distrusted within the South due to his average views

on slavery and secession. In could 1861 Campbell resigned from the Court

and later turned the Confederacy's assistant secretary of warfare. After the

war, Campbell moved his legislations perform to New Orleans. Upon his loss of life in

1889, memorial audio system in Washington, D.C., and New Orleans recognized

him as one of many nation's such a lot proficient attorneys and praised his sizeable learning

and mastery of either the typical legislation and the civil law.

In this primary complete biography of Campbell, Robert Saunders,

Jr., finds the superiority of anti-secession perspectives ahead of the Civil

War and covers either the judicial points and the political heritage of this

crucial interval in southern history.

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Extra resources for John Archibald Campbell, Southern moderate, 1811-1889

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Saunders, Robert, Jr. John Archibald Campbell, Southern moderate, 18111889 / Robert Saunders, Jr.  cm.  267) and index.  Title. 3073534] [B] 96-31041 British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication data available Page v This book is dedicated to Shannon Page vii Contents Preface ix 1. Ancestry and Antecedents 1 2. Professional Career, 18301842 20 3. Submerged Lands and States' Rights 39 4. Campbell and the Peculiar Institution 57 5. The Crisis at Midcentury 69 6.

Though his anxiety for states' rights forced him to modify his fundamentally nationalistic philosophy and to adopt a decidedly more inflexible defense of state sovereignty, Campbell never advocated the dissolution of the Union. Page xi When the sectional crisis reached fever pitch in 1860, Campbell counseled moderation. Secession was perfectly constitutional, he argued, but the mere election of a Republican by no means warranted such drastic action. Detested in the North because of his defense of states' rights and distrusted in the South because of his moderate views on slavery and secession, Campbell blamed his alienation on radicals in both sections who he believed had led the nation toward civil war.

Michael Musick at the National Archives was especially helpful, Page xii as was Eleanor Robin at the University of Southern Mississippi, Collette King at the Mobile County Probate Court Archives, and the staff of the John Archibald Campbell Federal Courthouse Archives in Mobile. I am grateful to the staff of the Mobile County Library and three very helpful staff members at the City of Mobile Municipal Archives. The lifelong encouragement that I have been given by my devoted parents, Robert and Gloria Saunders, has, finally, borne fruit.

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