Kisspeptin Signaling in Reproductive Biology by Robert A. Steiner (auth.), Alexander S. Kauffman, Jeremy T.

By Robert A. Steiner (auth.), Alexander S. Kauffman, Jeremy T. Smith (eds.)

Kisspeptin has been proven to be either priceless and adequate for activation of the reproductive axis, in the course of puberty and later in maturity. This makes kisspeptin a primary portion of the reproductive axis. Kisspeptin has been deemed the one such a lot effective stimulator of GnRH neurons but recognized. the significance of kisspeptin has been documented in people in addition to non-human animal types, starting from monkeys, sheep, and rodents to various fish species, hence signifying a hugely conserved nature of its reproductive functionality. Importantly, kisspeptin neurons appear to mediate the various regulatory results of alternative signs, whether or not they are metabolic, circadian, hormonal, or tension. This locations kisspeptin neurons in a special place to be key nodal issues and conduits for conveying various endogenous and exogenous signs to the reproductive axis.

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Nonetheless, comparison of cell numbers in the female brain under optimal hormonal conditions (estradiol treatment in the case of the preoptic population, and ovariectomy in the case of the ARC) suggests that the absolute number of kisspeptin cells in the ARC is generally two- to fourfold greater than that in the RP3V or POA [2]. Thus, the ARC kisspeptin cell population is most consistent among mammals in its presence and contains the greatest number of cells. Another complication that raises both technical and interesting biological issues is the effect of endocrine status on location of kisspeptin-ir within cells.

1). Like the RP3V population, Kiss1 expression in the medial amygdala is under the stimulatory influence of gonadal steroid hormones [14]. The localization of these populations in circuitry that mediates pheromonal control of sexual behavior [52, 53] and neuroendocrine function [54] suggests that they may play a role in these functions, but this remains to be explored. Finally, recent findings suggest that kisspeptin cells may be present in widespread areas of the brain outside the hypothalamus and limbic system.

71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. Structure, Synthesis, and Phylogeny of Kisspeptin and its Receptor 25 female rats: implication of axo-axonal regulation of GnRH release. J Neuroendocrinol 23:863–870 Servili A, Le Page Y, Leprince J, Caraty A, Escobar S et al (2011) Organization of two independent kisspeptin systems derived from evolutionary-ancient kiss genes in the brain of zebrafish. Endocrinology 152:1527–1540 Kanda S, Akazome Y, Okubo K, Okamura H, Oka Y (2009) Kisspeptin neurons act closely but indirectly on GnRH 1 neurons via local interneurons but not on GnRH 2 or 3 neurons in medaka.

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