By Charles Winslow
Winslow presents a finished heritage and political research of Lebanon from precedent days to the current day. He makes a speciality of the civil and sectarian strife that has characterised the country's previous and modern heritage.
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Extra info for Lebanon: War and Politics in a Fragmented Society
Together, they maintained firm control of Syria until the middle of 1840. After that, the situation for the Egyptians and their ally at Beit al-Din deteriorated rapidly. European diplomacy, led by the British, began to move against the Russian threat; agents from Britain and France worked the Mountain for support. Ibrahim understood that the Druze (and other Muslims) would be inclined to revolt but expected his Maronite ally, Bashir II, to keep the dhimmis (Jewish and Christian subjects) on board.
Perhaps as many as 1,200 persons were killed in the Jezzīn area and 300 more at the hands of Muslim fanatics in Sidon itself. 1 for location of regions and towns). At Hāsbayya, the Druze launched their typical surprise attack, surrounding the town and threatening to overwhelm its defenses. When the Christians asked the Turkish commander to let them take refuge in the serrai (fortress), he assented. Once under his control, he then proceeded to disarm the Christians and, after a delay caused by protests from the consuls, threw open the gates to let the maddened Druze rush in.
Finally, at the battle of Bharsāf (in the Matn), Ibrahim’s army (already shrunken from disease) was crushed. The British fleet and local rebellion had succeeded, and Muhammad Ali’s project was lost for good. 26 PEOPLES AND HISTORY TO 1840 Though never completely coordinated, Lebanese groups had managed enough collaboration (in 1840) to conduct several firefights which assisted the powers in forcing the Egyptians to leave Syria. Once again, the people of the Mountain were able to demonstrate that, as separate communities, they would strive to preserve their traditional independence.