Life cycle engineering of plastics: technology, economy and by Lars Lundquist, Y. Leterrier

By Lars Lundquist, Y. Leterrier

This booklet provides a lot to the already evolving box of layout for setting; however it is going a ways past so much works in this topic by means of surrounding the important notions of existence cycle review with a systematic physique of information and with a simpler slant reflecting the truth of the organisations within which product improvement happens. via a spotlight on plastic items, the authors exhibit the significance of constructing ties among simple technical wisdom and the method of lifestyles cycle engineering. Their method deals a realistic, planned method to make ecologically and economically good judgements approximately product reuse and recycling and different serious dimensions of product lifestyles habit. They reveal a favorable method of designing items that matches right into a sustainable economic climate via down-to-earth instances. whereas the booklet specializes in the existence cycle engineering of plastics, it's only a brief step to different fabrics and items. past contributing to the know-how of lifestyles cycle engineering, this article provides to the starting to be physique of information that argues for an essentially new state of mind approximately fiscal and social activity--a new paradigm for sustainable social and business challenge fixing. commercial ecology is the sort of new approach for considering and imposing sustainability that pulls its center set of rules from the ecological international. commercial ecology brings to the outside the assumption of interdependence between participants of a community-- average or monetary, and notes the fabric cycles which are imperative to a reliable atmosphere. The existence cycle engineering framework, coupled with sound clinical wisdom of fabrics habit as articulated during this e-book, makes an incredible step in the direction of bringing the version of business ecology into daily perform. From the Preface via John R. Ehrenfeld Director, MIT know-how, enterprise and surroundings software middle for expertise, coverage, and business improvement

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By adding the obtained times at this temperature, the required time of accelerated testing at a constant test temperature to simulate the service induced thermo-oxidative degradation is obtained. 2 S U P E R P O S I T I O N S A N D SHIFT F A C T O R S T i m e - temperature s u p e r p o s i t i o n In many applications, plastic parts carry reasonably constant mechanical loads over periods up to few years. The polymer will creep during the lifetime of the part. At moderate load levels, long-term prediction of creep from short-term tests is possible, because the viscoelastic response of polymers (creep, stress relaxation) measured at different temperatures superimpose when shifted along the time axis [24].

Progress in separation, cleaning and up-grading technology is likely to improve the consistency and quality of heterogeneous recycled material and encourage their use in more demanding applications. Confidence for recycled material has been limited among design engineers due to a lack of accurate life performance prediction tools. Often only small quantities are accepted in demanding applications unless there exists legislation enforcing a minimum recycle content. Many producers of in-plant and postconsumer recycled material claim that it is often possible to use larger quantities; the problem rather being to convince material customers that this does not represent an undue risk.

I - _ Time at T (hours) ,, ,,,, , , • . . . . 140 . . ,,,,,, ' ' " .... , ' 9 i ,,~_ ...... ~-- - ~ ,,, i 2000 t 4: 538 110 80,000 t3:7523 80 100,000 t2:3288 < 25 30O,000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . :: . . " Equivalent time at 2000C (te'q'"-200) . . . . , ti: 752 . ,,, , . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 to obtain a . {t l-t2,-t3-,t4. tc,i2{,).... 12,100 h 50% % . "-t3 ~ 30 " t_l t 4 . _ r 1" v 0 ..... 14 Hands-on accelerated testing method for long-term thermo-oxidative degradation.

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