Mandates and Democracy: Neoliberalism by Surprise in Latin by Susan C. Stokes

By Susan C. Stokes

Does it subject whilst politicians forget about the guarantees they made and the personal tastes in their elements? If politicians are looking to be reelected or see their occasion reelected on the finish in their time period, why might they impose unpopular regulations? Susan Stokes explores those questions through constructing a version of coverage switches after which checking out it with statistical and qualitative facts from Latin American elections during the last twenty years. She concludes that politicians might swap regulations simply because unpopular regulations are top for components and for this reason will also most sensible serve their very own political targets.

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Other politicians won after campaigning in favor of security-oriented policies – job creation, industrial policy, and a gradualist approach to inflation stabilization – and once in office carried out these policies. Still a third set of politicians won after making only the vaguest of campaign pronouncements, ones from which even the most attentive voters would garner little about the policies the candidate would pursue in office. Finally, a sizable minority of Latin American presidents ran for office pronouncing themselves in favor of securityoriented policies, only to switch to an efficiency-oriented agenda once in office.

And theories that predicted the violation of mandates linked this violation to governments that were acting against the interests of constituents. Yet we saw that politicians who want to represent may under some conditions hide their intentions and then switch policies in office. These conditions include when, once in office, governments learn that the conditions under which they will have to operate are different than expected in ways that render the old policies inappropriate, and when candidates believe that the policies voters dislike are in fact best for voters, but that their appropriateness will only become evident to voters after they have been implemented.

Some claim that Nicaraguans were too intimidated by pro-Sandinista pollsters to reveal their true intentions. Yet this claim is belied by many respondents’ highly critical statements about the government, including those by many who said that they planned to vote for Ortega. A more likely explanation is that the deep ambivalence about the Sandinistas induced indecision until very late. See Greenberg, cited in Barnes (1992). 37 Mandates and Democracy Chamorro’s modification of the neoliberal program six months into her administration is notable because it was a shift away from efficiencyoriented reforms in favor of security policies.

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