By David Healy
This provocative historical past of bipolar affliction illuminates how perceptions of affliction, if no longer the health problems themselves, are mutable over the years. starting with the origins of the concept that of mania -- and the time period maniac -- in historical Greek and Roman civilizations, well known psychiatrist David Healy examines how options of psychological afflictions advanced as medical breakthroughs proven connections among mind functionality and psychological ailment. Healy recounts the altering definitions of mania during the centuries, explores the consequences of latest terminology and transforming into public expertise of the sickness on tradition and society, and examines the increase of psychotropic remedies and pharmacological advertising during the last 4 a long time. alongside the best way, Healy clears a lot of the confusion surrounding bipolar illness while he increases an important questions on how, why, and by way of whom the affliction is clinically determined. Drawing seriously on fundamental resources and supplemented with interviews and perception received over Healy's lengthy occupation, this lucid and fascinating evaluate of mania sheds new gentle on certainly one of humankind's so much vexing diseases.
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Extra resources for Mania: A Short History of Bipolar Disorder (Johns Hopkins Biographies of Disease)
A second set of social forces in the early nineteenth century led to the creation of asylums to house the insane. The asylums called forth a new cadre of physicians, the alienists, who offered medical input to the care of inmates confined in these institutions. Confronted with insanity in all its guises, it was inevitable that, in the hands of these alienists, not only would our views of madness change, but the process would eventually affect how we view ourselves. A third group of forces stemmed from attempts to devise an explicit set of rules to determine when individuals should be held accountable for their actions.
When the psychopharmaceutical events that sit at the heart of this book began to unfold from 1949 onward, professors of medicine or psychiatry from Harvard, Oxford, or Paris would barely have known the names of pharmaceutical companies in the field. It was unlikely that even the most senior company figures would have been invited into the inner academic sanctums. But now the biggest university names in the field are likely to be found vying for the attentions of company personnel, and the establishment arguably now sits in company boardrooms rather than in universities.
They also become peevish, dispirited, and sleepless and begin to start up from a disturbed sleep. They become prey to anxieties, as the disease worsens, when their dreams become true, terrifying, and clear. Whatever they have an aversion to when awake rushes in upon their vision in sleep. In the course of their illness, these patients are prone to change their mind readily, switching from being base, mean-spirited, and illiberal to a short time later being simple, extravagant, and munificent; this does not happen from any virtue of the soul, but rather simply from the changeableness of the disease.