By Philip J. Kain (auth.)
In contemporary writings on Marx one unearths an expanding curiosity in his humanism. This phenomenon all started within the 3rd decade of our century as a response opposed to the mechanistic and stereotyped photograph of Marx 1 attribute of the second one overseas and of Stalinism. Lukacs, in heritage and sophistication cognizance (1923), was once one of many first to find this new Marx, and he did so even sooner than an important 2 of the humanistic writings of the younger Marx have been found. With the ebook ofthese writings in 1932 - specifically, the commercial three and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844 - this new outlook was once given huge, immense impetus. In those Manuscripts, Marx makes the individual the writer and the objective of alI truth. The objectification of the human essence via exertions transforms either society and nature. exertions transforms its wor1d right into a position which mirrors, unfolds, and confirms the individual. This humanism is a fancy and many-faceted factor. during this ebook we are going to be troubled in simple terms with a undeniable a part of it, i.e., the epistemology, technique, and doctrine of nature which it contains. different facets of it - Marx' idea of alienation and his idea of work and the country -have four been handled elsewhere.
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Extra info for Marx’ Method, Epistemology, and Humanism: A Study in the Development of His Thought
Thus there is a conscious and an unconscious part of nature. The proper distinction is really between thought and being rather than between human beings and nature (though it is very difficult to avoid the latter terminology). Thus it can be said that in the human being's hearing, nature hears itself, or that, just as thought seeks to realize itself, so "reality must itself strive toward thought". 45 Marx holds that the highest development of a thing is its essential and most natural form. "46 Nature's realization, its highest development, is the human being.
Dur senses have been transformed in the same process. There is evidence that this has involved a constitution. If either the natural or the subjective side has not been developed, a meaningful object is not constituted. For example, given the development of an object (a new piece of technology, music, or art) without a corresponding development of the subject (a class whose conditions have not given rise to the development of sensitivities to music, art, or technology64), the object will not be an object for the subject.
Transformed subjectivity, we have seen, will change the perception of an object and the theories of c1assical politic al economy influenced the development of industry. Nevertheless, by 1844 theory is not a form of praxis in the sense in which it was earlier when Marx spoke of philosophy becoming wor1dly or criticism transforming the wor1d. To constitute the object, to realize our essence in it, requires labor. Consciousness affects the object in a much less significant way than does labor. In the case of the child or prehumans, since conception would be undeveloped, its transformation of the object would be even less significant, and certainly could not eliminate the need for reflection of the independent object.