Nations and Nationalism 4 volumes : A Global Historical by Guntram H. Herb, David H. Kaplan

By Guntram H. Herb, David H. Kaplan

The pervasiveness of nationalism, its many manifestations over the centuries, and the generally scattered means it's been studied make it a very tough topic to technique and discover. ABC-CLIO bargains the best accomplished reference to be had on an important subject in glossy global background. throughout 4 volumes, countries and Nationalism: a world ancient review covers all facets of nationalism, in all elements of the realm, from the time of the French Revolution to the current day.Nations and Nationalism is helping scholars, researchers, and different readers discover nationwide identities and nationalistic hobbies in ancient context. geared up chronologically, its 4 volumes mix thematic essays on diversified features of nationalism with case reports of key old advancements regarding particular international locations at particular occasions. The encyclopedia makes a speciality of Europe, Latin the USA, Africa, and Asia, with featured insurance of nationalist cultural creations, together with literature, tune, symbols, and mythologies.

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In short, it formed the ideal vehicle for every kind of anti-establishment creative idea” (Schulze 1991, 98). The collapse of the German revolution in 1848–1849 put an end to the hopes for a liberal, all-German nation-state and seemed to back up Marx’s preference for an illiberal and internationalist solution. English nationalism during this period did not stir either the passions of intellectuals to the same degree as in Germany or the actions of the revolutionaries that dominated France. In his essay “Of National Character,” Scottish philosopher David Hume (1711–1766) argued that Britain’s mixed form of government and the freedom enjoyed by all its social classes and religions hindered the emergence of a national character.

Nationalism made for fractious international politics, Kohn contended, and it did not possess the universal values with which previous ideologies had been able to forge consensus. A third perspective—that taken by Eric Hobsbawm—made reference to the major changes produced by liberal nationalism. Accepting Bagehot’s thesis that nation-making was the chief characteristic of 19th-century politics, this view rested on what were seen as the contradictory developments in the “era of triumphant bourgeois liberalism” from 1830 to 1880: The European balance of power was transformed by the emergence of two great powers based on the national principle (Germany and Italy), the effective partition of a third on the same grounds (Austria-Hungary after the Compromise of 1867), not to mention the recognition of a number of lesser political entities as independent states claiming the new status as nationally based peoples, from Belgium in the west to the Ottoman successor states in southeast Europe (Greece, Serbia, Romania, Bulgaria), and two national revolts of the Poles demanding their reconstitution as what they thought of as a nation-state.

The concept of nation originated in Europe and spread to all continents in the 18th century. Its goals were and still are to integrate a country, legitimize a power system, and influence public opinion. These goals were often accomplished through national educational systems and particularly through the subjects of history, geography, and civics. Additionally, since fewer people could read and write in those days, non-formal education was also used by states to further nationalistic goals. Both educational strategies developed national emotional ties while degrading the importance of other cultures and nations.

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