By Irene Gendzier
Irene Gendzier's significantly acclaimed, wide-reaching research of post-World battle II U.S. coverage in Lebanon posits that the politics of oil and pipelines figured way more considerably in U.S. relatives with Lebanon than formerly believed. In 1958 the USA despatched hundreds of thousands of troops to shore up the Lebanese regime within the face of family competition and civil conflict. The justification was once fighting a coup in Iraq, yet lately declassified files express that the real goal was once to guard America's advertisement, political, and strategic pursuits in Beirut and the center East. via reevaluating U.S.-Lebanese kinfolk in the context of America's collaborative intervention with the Lebanese ruling elite, Gendzier aptly demonstrates how oil, strength, and politics drove U.S. coverage and motivated the advance of the nation and the quarter. that includes a brand new advent within which Gendzier discusses the U.S. invasion of Iraq in 2003 and the outstanding continuity of U.S. overseas coverage from 1945 to the current, Notes from the Minefield remains to be the normal textual content in this topic.
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Additional info for Notes from the Minefield: United States Intervention in Lebanon, 1945-1958
S. policy. S. official circles as to the nature of the Lebanese regime or of the social and political bases of civil war. S. S. ambassador in 1958, in spite of the fact that he knew that the opposition to the regime was largely, though not exclusively, Muslim in composition. The reasons for this opposition, however, had little to do with religion. Lebanese Christians opposed to the regime took their stand on political issues, as did the regime’s regional allies. While the regimes of Jordan, Turkey, Iraq, and Iran gave Sham‘un unconditional support, it was not in function of his Maronite identity or as a sign of their support for the Christian constituency that endorsed him.
S. ” But as the record indicates, concern with the Gulf predated the administration of President Nixon. Then and later, the basis of its importance and the question of who its beneficiaries were, were left unstated. S. oil policy remained deliberately obscure, as the controversy over the release of the 2001 Energy Task Force report indicated. S. Commerce Department agreed to release some of the information compiled by the Cheney Energy Task Force, as a result of a lawsuit brought by Judicial Watch under the aegis of the Freedom of Information Act.
19. Jordan J. Paust, “Executive Plans and Authorization to Violate International Law Concerning Treatment and Interrogation of Detainees,” Columbia Journal of Transnational Law 43, no. 811 (2005). 20. Gabriel Kolko, “On the Avoidance of Reality,” in Crimes of War, ed. Richard Falk, Gabriel Kolko, and Robert Jay Lifton (New York: Random House, 1971), p. 11, 12. 21. S. companies included Standard Oil Company of New Jersey (Jersey), Standard Oil Company of California (Socal), Socony Mobil Oil Company, Texaco, and Gulf Oil Corporation (Gulf).