Nuclear Physics (1929–1952) by R. Peierls

By R. Peierls

``Nuclear Physics'' offers with Bohr's paintings on nuclear physics which all started within the pre-1932 days along with his pondering deeply, yet inconclusively in regards to the seeming contradictions then offered by means of the facts in regards to the nucleus. In 1936, Bohr regarded and defined the insights supplied by way of neutron scattering experiments; the buzz of this new knowing and its extension and consolidation occupied a lot of the next years. In 1939, he was once back first in figuring out the basic gains of the newly came upon phenomenon of fission, using effectively the viewpoint of nuclear reactions which he had constructed during the last 3 years. Later, in 1949-50, he used to be inspired by means of the good fortune of the nuclear shell version, which at the face of it appeared not easy to reconcile with the image of the heavily interacting nucleons which he had pioneered in 1936. Bohr positioned a lot attempt into clarifying this paradox.

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Meanwhile an “admirable complete report” had been published by Bethe” which also commented on some of the authors’ con- ‘’ G . Breit and E. Wigner, Capture of Slow Neutrons, Phys. Rev. 49 (1936) 519-531. H . A . Bethe and G. Placzek, Resonance Effects in Nuclear Processes, Phys. Rev. 51 (1937) 450-484. See ref. 44. ” H . A . Bethe, Nuclear Physics, B. Nuclear Dynamics, Theoretical, Rev. Mod. Phys. 9 (1937) 69-244. 4y ’” PART I: PAPERS A N D MANUSCRIPTS RELATING TO NUCLEAR PHYSICS siderations, which were discussed at a conference in Washington in February 1937.

17 (1933) 869-896. 45 P A R T I : P A P E R S A N D M A N U S C R I P T S R E L A T I N G TO N U C L E A R P H Y S I C S crude)) there is by no means always a definite electron state which changes. ) One more question (which you need answer as little as everything else): By what method do you reconcile the large distances between the levels in the level scheme of RaC nuclei with the high level density which you need? ” The question was presumably discussed further when Kramers came to Copenhagen in June for a conference.

Addendum IV quotes the paper by Kalckar, Oppenheimer and Serber54 as relevant to the problem of the coupling of spins and orbital moments. Addendum V similarly draws attention to another paper by the same authors concerning the nuclear p h ~ t o - e f f e c t which ~ ~ , leads to a surprisingly high estimate of the radiative transition probabilities. Addendum VI returns to the evaporation problem and refers to the general thermodynamic treatment in the paper by Weisskopf already cited53. Finally Addendum IX refers to the controversy with Bethe over the a-emission probability and the nuclear radii.

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