By Brian R. Stickney
Las Monedas de Panama / История нумизматики республики Панама
Небольшой каталог по монетам Панамы,
цены даны в долларах США на 1971 год.
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Extra info for Numismatic History of Republic of Panama
Between 1579 and 1589 most encomiendas were abolished, private ranches called haciendas and estancias became the predominant enterprises, and the repartimiento labor rotation system was introduced, taking an even greater toll on the Indians because they were forced to work at great distances from their home communities and ﬁelds (Terga 1980:45, 56, 69–70, 73). As the Spanish colonies fell into an economic depression from 1580 to 1630, more Spaniards left the capital Santiago to establish small hacienda operations in eastern Guatemala and especially the Motagua Valley, creating constant tension with the remaining indigenous peoples, who lost land and crops to invading cattle (Terga 1980:75–76).
My investigation broadened beyond the hypothesized divide between organized Christian religions and moral economies to the reasons behind the Ch’orti’s’ ethnic shame. Were these even “Ch’orti’s” after all? While they themselves recognized the term, few seemed to use it as their principal means of selfidentiﬁcation. Some still used the term that Wisdom found most prevalent in the early 1930s, “lenguajero,” which is ironically a local Spanish word for speakers of Ch’orti’. ” What had prompted Ch’orti’s, unlike the millions of Mayas in western Guatemala, to slowly abandon their proud, distinctive identity?
The Ch’orti’s count land in terms of manzanas and tareas. 73 acres or 8,373 square yards (cf. López and Metz 2002). 26 Chapter One with the landscape of Quezaltepeque, rugged and overworked like Jocotán but with many trees, including the incense producing copal shrub. It took four hours to reach the summit of Nochán, and of the many seemingly Ch’orti’ campesinos with whom we chatted, no one claimed to speak Ch’orti’, but Carlos was certain that they were just ashamed to admit their Ch’orti’ ﬂuency.