By Stephen Boag
The only cease document books were designed by clinical scholars for clinical scholars to consolidate their wisdom, topic through topic and procedure through method. for every quarter studied there are just such a lot of questions an examiner can ask; they're offered the following with transparent causes that permit the coed to revise completely one subject at a time.
While doing so the scholar may also coaching their examination strategy. each one booklet contains MCQs, EMQs, SAQs and Problem-based Questions - precisely the type of questions they'll get of their exams.
Illustrated with easy, easy-to-reproduce line drawings, clinical scholars have during this one quantity all that they want for examination luck.
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Concerning complement pathways a. b. c. d. e. Mannose-binding lectin recognizes bacterial mannose residues The classical pathway involves the spontaneous hydrolysis of C3 All three pathways result in the formation of C3 convertase The alternative pathway occurs on pathogen surfaces The classical pathway can be activated by direct recognition of pathogen surfaces MBL, mannose-binding lectin Innate immunity 25 EXPLANATION: COMPLEMENT PATHWAYS Complement proteins are present in an inactive form but can be activated to provide many eﬀector functions of inﬂammation and humoral immunity.
How does the innate immune system distinguish between self and non-self? 17. Answer the following questions about innate recognition of microorganisms a. b. c. d. e. What are PAMPs? Name three characteristics of PAMPs List three examples of PAMPs What name is given to host receptors that recognize PAMPs? What are TLRs? 18. Complete the following table concerning Toll-like receptors C D Unmethylated CpG DNA 19. Name another pattern-recognition receptor (not of the Toll-like receptor family) and describe its role in innate defences DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid; MBL, mannose-binding lectin; PAMP, pathogen-associated molecular pattern; PRR, pattern-recognition receptor; RNA, ribonucleic acid; TLR, Toll-like receptor Innate immunity 29 EXPLANATION: PATTERN RECOGNITION RECEPTORS The innate immune system demonstrates broad speciﬁcity characterized by the ability to distinguish self from non-self.
These sites are formed by the VH and VL domains, in which there is variability in the amino-acid sequence between antibodies of diﬀerent speciﬁcities. Within each of the two V domains (VH and VL) there are three separate amino-acid sequences that show most variability. The antibody molecule is folded in such a way as to bring these six hypervariable segments into alignment to form the antigen-binding site, or paratope. These areas determine the speciﬁcity of the antibody and are consequently known as complementarity determining regions (CDRs).