Pharmacological Approaches to the Treatment of Brain and by Simón Brailowsky (auth.), Donald G. Stein, Bernhard A. Sabel

By Simón Brailowsky (auth.), Donald G. Stein, Bernhard A. Sabel (eds.)

Although there are over 400,000 humans every year within the usa by myself that suffer from annoying harm to the crucial apprehensive approach (CNS), no phar­ macological remedy is at the moment to be had. contemplating the enormity of the matter by way of human tragedy in addition to the industrial burden to households and societies alike, it's staggering that so little attempt is being made to increase remedies for those issues. even though not anyone can develop into inured to the sufferers of mind or spinal twine accidents, one cause that inadequate effort and time were dedicated to study on restoration is that it's a quite often held clinical trust that frightened approach accidents are easily now not amenable to remedy. At top, present cures are geared toward delivering symptomatic aid or specialize in re­ habilitative measures and the educating of different behavioral concepts to assist sufferers do something about their impairments, with in simple terms marginal ends up in many situations. basically in the final decade have neuroscientists all started to make severe inroads into figuring out and studying the inherent "plasticity" present in the grownup CNS. Ten years or so in the past, only a few researchers or clinicians could have suggestion that broken imperative neurons may perhaps sprout new terminals or that intact nerve fibers in a broken pathway might proliferate to exchange inputs from neurons that died due to injury.

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82:63306334. 34. Ludwin, S. , 1984, Proliferation of mature oligodendrocytes after trauma to the central nervous system, Nature 308:274-275. 35. Luria, A. , 1948, Restoration of Function after Brain Injury, Macmillan, New York, p. 10 (reprinted 1963). 36. MacDermott, A. , Mayer, M. , Westbrook, G. , Smith, S. , and Barker, J. , 1986, NMDA-receptor activation increases cytoplasmic calcium concentration in cultured spinal cord neurons, Nature 321:519-522. 37. Malenka, R. , Madison, D. , and Nicoll, R.

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Only 1-2% of the total arachidonate released by brain or spinal cord following injury is converted to eicosanoids. This observation may indicate that only those arachidonate molecules that are released in close proximity to the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase systems are metabolized. 32 3. PAUL DEMEDlUK AND ALAN 1. 1. 1. INHIBITION OF HYDROLYSIS Following CNS trauma, lipid hydrolysis products may lead to direct membrane perturbation. Lipid hydrolysis products may also be metabolized to biologically active factors that may exacerbate the injury state.

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