Photosynthesis during leaf development by Z. à esták, J. Čatský (auth.), Zdenĕk à estăk (eds.)

By Z. à esták, J. Čatský (auth.), Zdenĕk à estăk (eds.)

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7a). A tenfold increase in the incoming radiation doubles the thickness of the mesophyll during leaf ontogeny (Wild and Wolf 1980). The ratio of thickness of palisade parenchyma to thickness of spongy parenchyma was defined as the "mesophyll quotient"; this index increased with leaf ontogeny (Fig. 7 a) and insertion level as the thickness of palisade parenchyma enlarged more than that of spongy parenchyma (Neese 1917). Thus the thickness of the palisade layer increased more than twofold in upper leaves (pereira and Kozlowski 1976) and the spongy parenchyma layer in upper leaves was about one third or more thinner than in lower leaves (Malus - Cowart 1936, Eucalyptus - Pereira and Kozlowski 1976).

A definite relationship of chloroplast size to leaf area was established (Xanthium - Holowinsky et al. 1965). In darkness the mean chloroplast diameter increased up to 10 d after which it remained steady (Phaseolus - Bradbeer et al. 1974). g. 26 [Lm, respectively (Arabidopsis during 22 d ofleaf development - Hoffmann 1968). After reaching a maximum size, chloroplast diameter in palisade and spongy cells declines again (Phaseolus - Naito et al. 1979; Capsicum - Steer 1972) (Fig. 8 b). Similarly, the surface and volume of chloroplasts increased (Arabidopsis - Hoffmann 1968; Sinapis - Wild and Wolf 1980) (Figs.

5). On the other hand, in upper, middle and bottom leaves of Vaccinium macrocarpon the same course of gradients in stomata density on the abaxial leaf surface is found (Sawyer 1932). g. irradiance (Iris - Pazourek 1970), water supply (Gossypium - Gindel 1969), soil salinity level (Gossypium - Gausman and Cardenas 1968), type of cultivation - glasshouse, field (Vitis - Diiring 1980), closeness of the stand (Asperula - Elias and Kozinka 1976), ecotype (Phragmites - Pazourek 1973a, b), etc. g. Medicago - pazourek 1965).

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