Principles of Receptor Physiology by Werner R. Loewenstein (ed.)

By Werner R. Loewenstein (ed.)

Why may still there be a guide of sensory body structure, and if this is the case, why now' The editors have requested this question, marshalled the entire arguments that appeared to converse opposed to their venture, after which stumbled on that the majority of those arguments particularly spoke in desire of it: there looked to be doubtless that the test may be made and that it's going to be made now. No entire evaluation of sensory body structure has been tried for the reason that Bethe's "Handbuch der normalen und pathologischen Physiologie", approximately 40 years in the past. for the reason that then, the sector has developed with unexpected rapidity. even if electrical probing of unmarried peripheral nerve fibers used to be started by means of ADRIAN and ZOTTERMAN as early as 1926, within the somatosensory procedure, and prolonged to unmarried optic nerve fibers by means of HARTLINE in 1932, the true upsurge of such single-unit stories has simply come over the last twenty years. Single-cell electrophysiology has now been utilized to all sensory modalities and on virtually each available phylogenetic point. It has started to elucidate peripheral receptor motion and is including to our. knowing of the principal processing of sensory info. In parallel with those advancements, there were primary reviews of the physics and chemistry of the receptors themselves: those reports are resulting in insights into the mechanisms of power transduction and nerve impulse initiation.

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1965) found that by sonic oscillation of small pieces of about 100 ILg weight of the envelope of the (unmyelinated) squid giant axons the rate of enzyme activity increased by 250 %. It is difficult to know whether the value thus obtained represents 100% of the enzyme present, or perhaps only 80,90 or 95%. The difference between the values measured and the total activity actually present may vary from one type of tissue to another. Use of organic solvents or detergents mayor may not be able to break up the barriers, thereby facilitating the reaction of the substrate with the enzyme.

The data still do not indicate how much DFP is actually present within the 100 A membrane, but, as discussed, concentration in an organized membrane structure of 100 A has little meaning. In any event, the presence of an active enzyme rapidly hydrolyzing DFP in the preparation is an additional factor which may readily account for the high outside concentration required (1 mg/mI) since only a fraction of this outside concentration may penetrate to the excitable membrane after the passage through the Schwann cell.

Examination with electron microscopy of the squid giant axons exposed under the same experimental conditions to the venom of cottonmouth moccasin have revealed that the SCHWANN cell is markedly affected; no structural change of the membrane was noticeable (MARTIN and ROSENBERG, 1968). The active component of the snake venom proved to be phospholipase A (ROSENBERG and NG, 1963; CONDREA and ROSENBERG, 1968); the formation of lysolecithin by this enzyme has been shown to account fully for the effects observed (ROSENBERG and CONDREA, 1968).

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