By Robert M. Carmack
A number of centuries earlier than the Spanish conquest, the Quichean humans, relocating southward from Mexico, overran the highlands of Guatemala and there verified an autonomous country that continued till its destruction in 1524 through the conquistadors. in the course of the early years of the resulting interval the Quicheans recorded their earlier background and legends, writing in their personal language yet utilizing the Latin alphabet. Many of those chronicles have survived, each one illuminating numerous facets of preconquest Quichean culture.
simply because it advanced aside from Astern impacts, Quichean civilization —a manifestation of Maya civilization—may be appeared as one of the designated cultures in the heritage of mankind, similar in many respects to these first nice ones of the outdated global in early Mesopotamia and Egypt, Minoan Crete, the Indus Valley, and the Yellow River.
How did the Quichean civilization originate? Why did it boost its specific features? What have been its significant cultural accomplishments? In what respects did it resemble different early civilizations? How a lot of its cultural history survives between the present-day Guatemalan population?
prior to those and comparable questions will be responded with any simple task, the clinical proof bearing on them needs to be accumulated, catalogued and appraised. In the current booklet Mr. Carmack describes a few of this proof, explains the conditions of its starting place, and assesses the price of every one merchandise insofar as it contributes to our realizing of Quichean civilization.
Mr. Carmack is a member of the division of Anthropology at the nation college of New York, Albany.
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Extra info for Quichean Civilization; The Ethnohistoric, Ethnographic, and Archaeological Sources
David Collier, 285---318. O'Donnell, l'Reflections, 7. Alfred Stepan, The Military in Politics: Changing Pa ttems in Brazil (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1971 ); idem, State Power and the Strength of Civil Society in the Southern Cone of Latin America, in Bringing the State Back In, ed. Peter B. Evans, Dietrich Rueschemeyer, and Theda Skocpol (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985). Stepan, State Power," 290-316. , 325. , 320. See Andres Fontana, 11 De la crisis de Malvinas a Ia subordinaci6n condicionada: conflictos intramilitares y transici6n poHtica en Argentina, Working Paper No.
Of the remaining countries, 9 fit the criteria outlined earlier: Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Honduras, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela. Three of them (Argentina, Honduras, and Peru) have experienced redemocratization more than once, resulting in a total of 13 different cases. To assess the impact of authoritarian rule in each of these cases, data were collected on the competitive national elections that most immediately preceded the authoritarian seizure of power (time 1 or Tl election) as well as those elections associated with redemocratization (time 2 or T2 election).
To pose serious dilemmas with respect to the problem of measuring and comparing political change. These difficulties are compounded by the paucity of data for electoral results. In the case of Peru, where published data on the vote in congressional elections remain exiguous and often contradictory, it is necessary to rely on presidential election results to assess political change over time. For the 1945 and 1956 elec~ions, these d~ta are unfortunately rather inadequate. which has provided the Peruvian party system with its principal element of continuity over time, did not compete openly in presidential elections until 1962.